Manufacturing Industries Questions
Below are some of the very important NCERT Class 10 Social Science Unit 2 Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Questions. These Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Questions have been prepared by expert teachers and subject experts based on the latest syllabus and pattern of term 2. Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept.
These Questions for Class 10 Social Science Manufacturing Industries Questions with answers are very important for the latest CBSE term 2 pattern. These class 10 notes, Q and A are very important for students who want to score high in CBSE Board.
We have put together these NCERT Questions of Class 10 Social Science unit 2 chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Questions for practice on a regular basis to score high in exams. Refer to these Questions with Answers here along with a detailed explanation.
Short Answer (SA) Type Questions
1. What is manufacturing? How does manufacturing lead to value addition of the raw material? Explain with the help of an example.
2. What is the contribution of industries to the national economy of India? Compare this contribution with the East-Asian countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?
3. “Industrialisation and urbanization go hand in hand.” Justify the statement by giving any three arguments.
4. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years? Explain.
5. Explain any three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
6. Mention any six factors responsible for the location of jute mills in the Hugli basin.
7. Mention any two challenges faced by the jute industry in India. State any one step taken by the government to stimulate its demand.
8. What are the mineral based industries? Give four examples.
9. Why is the iron and steel industry called the basic industry? What are the problems faced by this industry?
Explain any three problems faced by the Iron and Steel industry in India.
10. Mention any two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India. Name two centers where this industry is located.
11. How do industries create thermal and noise pollution? Mention their consequence.
12. Examine how industrial pollution of freshwater can be reduced.
Suggest any three measures to reduce the industrial pollution of freshwater resources.
13. Mention the negative impacts of waste from the nuclear plant.
14. Explain any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
Suggest any three steps to minimize environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India.
Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry.
15. “Sugar industry in India is facing challenges”. Analyze the statement with suitable arguments.
Short Answer Type Question Answer
Production of goods in large quantities by processing of raw material to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
Manufacturing lead to value addition of the raw material as people employed in the secondary activities manufacture the primary materials into finished goods.
These finished goods are more useful, hence more in value. For example, paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore, aluminum from bauxite etc.
Thus raw materials are transformed into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value. Countries that transform in this way are prosperous.
The contribution of industries to the national economy of India has not been satisfactory for the last two decades. It has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP out of a total of 27 percent for the industries which includes 10 percent of mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
In comparison to India’s 17 percent share in the GDP, the manufacturing sector in East-Asian countries have a contribution of 25 to 35 percent of their GDP
The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent. At present, growth rate is about 9 to 10 percent and it is expected that we can achieve the growth rate of 12 per cent by some efforts like setting up of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC).
Industrialisation and urbanization go hand in hand. For example,
(i) Industrialisation causes growth in available factory jobs. As a result, the employment rate increases which pulls people from various places towards the places where industries are located.
(ii) Many industries tend to come together to make use of advantages offered by the urban centers.
(iii) Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labor, consultants and financial advice, which are needed by the industry.
In the early years, the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat due to availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labor, moist climate, etc.
This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton ball pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works. AIl these factors determine the location of cotton mills in early years.
Three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India are
(i) Power supply is erratic. Regular power supply without breaks is essential for this industry.
(ii) Output of labor is low because the machinery is outdated. Particularly in the weaving and processing sectors, the machinery needs to be upgraded.
(iii) This industry faces stiff competition from the synthetic fiber industry in terms of cost and convenience of use.
Factors responsible for location of jute mills in the Hugli basin are:
(i) Proximity to the jute producing areas.
(ii) Inexpensive water transport, supported by a good network of railways and roadways.
(iii) Abundance of water for processing raw jute.
(iv) Availability of cheap labor from nearby areas.
(v) Facilities for export of jute goods.
(vi) Banking, insurance and other commercial facilities to jute industry.
The two challenges faced by the jute industry in India are
(i) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(ii) Supply competition from other jute producing nations like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
The step taken by the government to stimulate the demand for jute is that it has introduced a policy of mandatory use of jute industries in the USA, Canada, Ghana, UK and Australia.
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
Four examples of mineral based industries are
(i) The Iron and Steel Industry All other industries depend on it for their machinery,
(ii) Chemical Industry It contributes approximately 3 percent of India’s GDP
(iii) Fertilizer Industry It is centered around the production of nitrogenous, phosphatic, ammonium phosphate and complex fertilizers
(iv) Cement Industry This requires limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum as raw materials.
Iron and steel industry is known as the basic industry because all the other industries (heavy, medium and light) depend on it for their machinery and products. Problems faced by this industry are
(i) The finished goods of this industry are heavy and bulky that require heavy transportations costs.
(ii) There is limited availability of coking coal and productivity of labour is low. Other problems are irregular supply of energy and poor infrastructure.
Two factors contributing to healthy growth of the automobile sector are
(i) Liberalization is one of the major factors which provided a boost in the growth of the automobile industry in India. With the introduction of new and contemporary models of automobiles in the country, the demand for these vehicles increased at a faster pace.
(ii) With the introduction of new technology in this sector, Indian industries are now capable of competing with the global technologies. This could happen by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
Two major centers where this industry is located are Gurugram and Indore.
Industries create thertnnl and noise pollution iri thc following ways:
- Thermal pollution of water bodies occurs when hot water from factories and thermal power plants is released into them before cooling.
The consequences of thermal pollution are that aquatic life in the water bodies can be killed, this includes plants as well as fish.
- Noise pollution is generated by the unbearable noise from Industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, pneumatic and electric tools.
The consequences of noise pollution creates irritation, anger, stress, hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
The industrial pollution of freshwater resources can be reduced in the following ways:
(i) Restructuring the manufacturing processes in various industries to reduce or eliminate pollutants through pollution prevention methods.
(ii) Creating man-made cooling ponds designed to cool heated effluent waters of industries by evaporation, condensation and radiation.
(iii) Filtration of the sewage in water treatment plants before dumping it into water bodies.
Negative impacts of waste from the nuclear plants are
- Waste from nuclear plants have radioactive properties and may cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
- Nuclear wastes are generally dumped in deep sea-water. In case of their unfortunate leakage, there will be severe threat to aquatic life.
- Radioactive contamination can easily spread throughout the environment and the air, land and water can all become polluted and harm humans and other life forms.
Five measures or steps to control or minimize industrial(NCERT) pollution in India are
(i) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(ii) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Updated machinery and equipment should be used that makes less noise and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(iv) Pollution check certificates should be made compulsory,
(v) Machineries used in the industries can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. Noise absorbing materials may also be used.
Sugar industry in India is facing lot of challenges which are
(i) This industry is seasonal as it is dependent on sugarcane which is an annual crop. Workers get employed only for a short period.
(ii) The machines and ways of producing sugar from sugarcane are old and inefficient.
(iii) The raw material i.e. sugarcane is bulky which increases the transportation cost and difficulty of transporting.
(iv) The sucrose content in sugarcane keeps on decreasing with time so transport delay in reaching sugarcane to factories results in losses.
(v) There is also the challenge of using the byproducts of sugarcane properly like bagasse.
Long Answer (LA) Type Questions
1. Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries ? Explain with examples.
2. Explain any three physical factors and two human factors for the location of the industry.
Explain with examples any five factors that are responsible for industrial location.
Explain any three factors that affect the location of industries, with suitable examples.
3. Which factor plays the most dominant role in the ideal location of an industry? Explain any three reasons in support of this factor.
4. Why does the textile industry occupy an important position in the Indian economy? Explain.
5. Which states of India have the maximum extent of cotton textile growth? Give four reasons for its concentration in this state.
6. Why does the ‘Chota Nagpur Plateau region‘ have the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyze the reasons.
Explain the reasons for concentration of iron and steel industries in and around Chotanagpur region.
7. How are industries responsible for environmental degradation in India? Explain with examples.
Long Answer Type Question Answer
The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries because
- Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy.
For example, these provide tractors, thresher, irrigation pumping machines and other modern machineries for agricultural development.
- Manufacturing also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Industrial development helps in removal of unemployment and poverty. It also aims at bringing down regional differences by establishing industries in backward areas. For example, handloom industries in tribal regions.
- Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings much needed foreign exchange.
- Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous.
The physical and human factors that affect the location of industry are
(i) Availability of raw materials. Factories close to the location of raw material if they are heavy and bulky to transport. For example, the iron and steel industry is located near the sources of raw material.
(ii) Water Source Water is a factor that determines the location of industries. Water is required for various industrial processes. River water and WaterFalls can also be used to generate hydroelectricity.
(iii) Climate It plays a significant role in the establishment of industries. Harsh climate is not very suitable for industries. Extremely hot, humid, dry or cold climate is not very conducive for industries.
For example, the cotton textile industry requires a humid climate because thread breaks in dry climate.
(i) Labor A large and cheap labor force is required for labor-intensive and manufacturing industries. High-tech industries have to be located where suitable skilled workers are available.
(ii) Capital This is the money that is invested to start a business. The amount of capital will determine the size and location of the factor.
(iii) Government Policies Industrial development is encouraged in some areas and restricted in others. Industries that are located in backward areas may receive financial incentives and assistance from the government in the form of low rent and tmx rates.
Least cost factor plays the most dominant role for the icleal location of an industry due to the following reasons
(i) Cost of obtaining raw material at the factory site should be minimum i.e. raw materials should be available nearby or may be transported cheaply to the industrial location.
(ii) The factory should be located as such that the manufactured products may easily be distributed or transported to the market at the least cost by rail, road or water transport.
(iii) Cost of manufacturing at the factory site should be low. This means that trained experienced labor should be readily available locally or in nearby areas, electric power supply should be readily available and cheap. Also, land for locating the industry should be available at proper rates.
Textile industry occupies unique position in Indian economy because
(i) Contribution to Industrial Production This industry is self-reliant and complete in the value chain, which means from production of cotton to processing of textiles, all the procedures are well developed and done in the country,
(ii) Employment Generation This industry generates employment for a large number of persons directly or indirectly.
(iii) Demand Creation Textile industries create demand for other industries such as chemicals, dyes, packaging materials, engineering works, handicrafts industry etc.
(iv) Foreign Exchange Earnings By exporting the products of this industry, the country earns foreign exchange.
(v) Supports Agriculture This is a major agro-based industry of India and supports agriculture in a big way both by buying agricultural output (cotton) and by providing agricultural inputs (hybrid cotton seeds, implements).
Maharashtra and Gujarat states have the maximum extent of cotton textile growth. The reasons for the concentration of cotton textile industry in these states are
(i) Availability of raw materials Due to favorable soil type and other climatic conditions, cotton is grown in a vast area in these states. So, raw materials are available in plenty.
(ii) Transport These states are well connected to the rest of the country by rail and road. Also, they have many large ports from where the finished products can be easily exported.
(iii) Market They also enjoy well-developed markets where there is a lot of demand for cotton textiles.
(iv) Labour Although they have locally available cheap labor force, they are supported by migrant labours from the other states.
(v) Moist Climate For cotton cultivation, moist climate is a must. These states have favorable climatic conditions.
The reasons/factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industries in and around the ‘Chotanagpur Plateau Region’ are
(i) Low Cost of Iron Ore Iron mines are located in the nearby areas. It helps to reduce the transportation cost of .i14011 ore to the industries.
(ii) High Grade Raw Materials in Proximity Bulky raw materials like, coking coal, limestone are also/ available in proximity.
(iii) Availability of Cheap Labor From the adjoining areas or Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha, cheap labor is available in abundance,
(iv) Dense transport Network This region is well connected with roadways and railways that help in the swift movement of raw materials and finished goods to the industry and market areas, respectively.
(v) Port Facilities Kolkata is a well developed port that is near to this area.
Industries are responsible for environmental degradation in India as they pollute the environment by polluting air, water and land in following ways
(i) Air Pollution Industries cause air pollution by the emission of gasses from industrial complexes and power generation units. Leakage of poisonous gasses and chemicals and smoke from chemical industries also lead to air pollution.
(iii) Water Pollution It is caused when industrial effluents both organic and inorganic are discharged into rivers or other water bodies.
Industries like paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries discharge detergent acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastic and rubber, etc. into water bodies.
(iii) Thermal Pollution This pollution occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. It badly affects aquatic life.
For example, wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production causes cancers, birth defects, miscarriages etc. Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and thus groundwater also gets contaminated.
(iv) Noise Pollution Undesirable noise pollution from industries like construction, running of generators to generate power, electrical drills, etc. is responsible for disturbing our environment.
Noise pollution not only irritates us, but it also causes hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure etc.
Case-Study Based Questions
1. Read the given cases/sources and answer the following questions
Source A Importance of Manufacturing
Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(i) To what extent do you agree that manufacturing industries are important (br people? State only two reasons.
Source B Contribution of Industry to National Economy
Over the last two decades, the share of the manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 per cent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 per cent.
(ii) Why is it said that the manufacturing sector of the Indian economy is much lower than the East Asian economy? What initiatives are taken by the government to deal with this situation?
Source C Industrial Location
Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by availability of raw material, labor, capital, power and market, etc. It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locatc at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.
(iii) Why is it said that it is rarely possible to find all the factors of industrial location available at one place? State only one aspect.
2. Read the given case/source answer the following questions,
In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat, Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, moist climate, etc. contributed towards its localisation.
This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton ball pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as, chemicals and dyes, packaging materials and engineering works.
(i) Which two places were important in early years for the concentration of textile industry in India? State any one challenge faced by cotton textile industries in India.
(ii) To what extent do you agree that these places are suitable for the location of the cotton textile industry? State any two reasons.
(iii) To what extent do you agree that the cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture and also supports other industries as well? State two reasons.
Cased-Study Based Answers
It is true that manufacturing industries are important fbr people because these industries create jobs for people and reduce heavy dependence ol’ people on agricultural income.
Manufacturing sector of the Indian economy is much lower than East Asian economics because the manufacturing sector of India has stagnated at 17% of GDP whereas East Asian economics has 25-35% GDP.
In order to develop the sector of manufacturing industries, the government has set up the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC). The objective is to bring appropriate policy to improve productivity to achieve desired growth rate.
It is rarely possible to find all the factors of industrial location available at one place because these factors are different in nature: For example, some factors are physical in nature like raw materials, water source and climate where is some are human factors such as labor capital power and market places
Gujarat and Maharashtra were important in early years for the concentration of the textile industry in India.
The challenges faced by cotton textile industries in India is that this industry faces stiff competition from the synthetic fiber in terms of cost and convenience of use.
Gujarat and Maharashtra are suitable for the location of cotton textile industry because
(i) Both states have favorable climate conditions for growing cotton.
(ii) Both states have a well developed market, where there is a lot of demand for cotton textiles.
It is true that cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture and also supports industries as
(i) Cotton textile industry provides a living to farmers and cotton ball pluckers because they grow cotton which is the basic raw material of this industry.
(ii) This industry by creating demands supports many other industries. For example, chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
Click Below To Learn Other Chapters SSc (Term 2 Syllabus)
- Unit 1. Sec 1 Chapter 2: Nationalism In India
- Unit 1. Sec 2 Chapter 3: The Making Of Global World
- Unit 2. Chapter 3: Minerals And Energy Resources
- Unit 2. Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries
- Unit 2. Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy
- Unit 3. Chapter 6: Political Parties
- Unit 3. Chapter 7: Outcome of Democracy
- Unit 4. Chapter 3: Money And Credit
- Unit 4. Chapter 4: Globalization And The Indian Economy
From the above article, you have practiced Class 10 Social Science unit 2 chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Questions. We hope that the above-mentioned notes, Q & A for term 2 will surely help you in your exam.
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