Psychology And Sports | Chapter 9 Notes Term 2

Psychology And Sports

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Psychology and sports deals with positive behavior of sportsperson during training and competition period to increase performance.

It guides coaches and players to give individual attention regarding various method and various motivational techniques.

Personality

Personality is an organised set of characteristics possessed by a person that influence his/her cognitions, emotions, motivation and behaviour in various situations.

It is the enduring personal characteristics of individuals. It is much more than outer appearance.

Personality includes the combination of emotional, attitude and behaviour response pattern of an individual.

People who have good Personality, are very likeable, interesting and pleasant to be with.

Personality has four dimensions:

  • Physical Dimension: It is with appearance, shape, size, structure, weight, height and skin colour
  • Mental Dimensions: It is related with thought, ideas, knowledge, etc
  • Social Dimensions: It is related with the social Qualities like adjustment, cooperation, togetherness, discipline, leadership, etc.
  • Emotional Dimensions: It is related with anger, happyness, joyfulness, curiosity, etc.

Types of Personality

Type A: Individuals with this type of Personality are very competitive, self critical and high working involvement. 

They easily get excited, quickly become impatient with delays. Such types of individuals can easily be arousals to anger, hostility and aggression.

Type B : Individuals with this type of Personality are not competitive in nature. They are easy going and patient.They usually do not get angry, able to express their emotions and cope with stress effectively.

Type C : These people have pleasing nature. They are unable to express their emotions. They are lethargic, passive, hopeless and pessimistic.

Type D: These individuals usually suffer from high degrees of de-stress. They have a fear of rejection or disapproval. 

Traits and Types

Psychology

Sheldon’s Classification of Personality

  • Endomorph
  • Mesomorph
  • Ectomorph

Sheldon’s Personality

Endomorph

This kind of person is generally stocky with the large round body, short neck, short arms and wide hips. They have plenty of fat on their body. 

Their physical fitness level is very low, related to speed and endurance whereas they have massive strength. They are Comfort loving, peaceful, sociable, relaxed and  tolerant Personal. 

Mesomorph

These persons are muscular with broad chest, strong legs and arms with medium height. These people have good strength, speed, flexibility and attractive Personality. 

They are good for almost all the activities. Their personal characters say that they are active, assertive  and Competent persons. 

Ectomorph

These people are thin with slim faces, narrow shoulders, chest and Hip. They have low fat on their body. Ectomorphs have less strength, whereas they dominate in endurance activities.

Personality wise they are quite, sensitive, fragile, restrained and non assertive. they are very self conscious, socially anxious, artistic and thoughtful.

Jung Classification Of Personality

  • Introvert
  • Extrovert
  • Ambivert

Jung Personality

👉 Introvert personality 
Introverts are described as people who share characteristics such as shyness, social withdrawal, tendency to talk less.

They have their own world of ideas, thoughts, behaviour, interest and attitude. Introvert people are self centred, unable to adjust easily in social situations. 

👉 Extrovert personality 
These people have the tendency to be outgoing, friendly, talkative, and social in nature. Their behaviour and action are concerned to interact with others.

They prefer contacts, generous, supportive and courageous. 

👉 Ambivert personality
There are only a few people who are pure introvert or pure extrovert. The remaining majority of people  possessed both the quality or traits of introverts and extroverts.

Big Five Theory Personality

According to this theory personality depends upon five dimensions or traits.

  • Openness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Extroversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness to experience: These people like to learn new things, new concepts and enjoy new experiences. Openness reflects curiosity and creativity.
  • Conscientiousness: They are self discipline, reliable and prompt. Such people are organised, systematic and complete in all respects
  • Extroversion: They have high energy, positive emotions, sociability and tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others and talkative.
  • Agreeableness: They possess the quality to be compassionate, cooperative towards others, helpful nature and trust others.
  • Neuroticism: They experience unpleasant emotions easily such as anger, anxiety and depression. Such individuals remain Moody and tense.

Motivation

Motivation is one of the most important psychological factors, which inspires us to do something good.

Motivation has immense effect on learning, in the absence of motivation the learning rate is lower. It is a kind of inner force which gives energy to a person to make constant effort.

It increases the desire to perform better.

Types of Motivation

Internal Motivation

This motivation occurs within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon bodily needs, instinct, nature, emotional needs, social needs, etc. 

Intrinsic motivation depends upon goal setting, self appraisal, auto suggestions and positive attitude.

External Motivation

This motivation depends upon external factors. This external factor compelled a person to perform better. 

External Motivation has a great impact on an individual’s performance. 

Motivation can be given in various way like rewards, punishment, praise, blame, cash prize, feedback, etc

Techniques of Motivation

  • Goal setting: It is the most important technique of motivation. People should be encouraged to set achievable long term goals based on their capacities.
  • Healthy environment: Healthy, clean and Hygienic environment motivates a player to participate.
  • Good quality Equipment and playgirls: Both improves the performance of sportsman
  • Reward and punishment: If players are informed in advance about what he gets and what he loses, then performance is better.
  • Coaching and guidance: Good coaching and guidance improves the performance.
  • Spectators: Good and positive responses from spectators encourage the player to perform well.
  • Knowledge of results: Proper knowledge of results motivates learners to learn rapidly.
  • Cash prizes, certificates and trophies: These are good incentives to motivate a sportsman.
  • Competition: Healthy and good sports competition is a motivating factor for improving performance.

Aggression

Aggression refers to a range of behaviour that can result in both physical and psychological harm to oneself, others or objects in an environment. 

This type of social interaction harms another person, either physically or mentally. 

According to Richardson: Any form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring others live.

Causes

  • In Children: Poor relationship skills, underlying health conditions, stress or frustration.
  • In Teens: Unhealthy relationship with family or others
  • In Adults: Job or Business stress, relationship with family or friends, ego, to prove dominance, socio economic problems, poor health, etc

Types of Aggression

  • Impulsive Aggression
  • Instrumental Aggression
  • Assertive Behavior Aggression

😎 Impulsive Aggression:
It is characterized by strong emotions of anger. It is often instant and not planned. This aggression takes place in the heat of the moment.

😎 Instrumental Aggression:
It is also known as predatory aggression. It is marked by intended behavior to achieve a large goal. This is often done with carefully planning.

😎 Assertive Behaviour Aggression:
It is the behaviour that involves the legitimate Physical or verbal force to achieve one’s purpose. Such as sledging in cricket to cause psychological discomfort.

Psychology and sports chapter 9 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which one is not a part of big five personality theory?

a. Agreeableness

b. Neuroticism

c. Ambiversion

d. Extroversion

2. One of the Sheldon’s Personality Theory is

a. Introvert

b. Ectomorph

c. Extrovert

d. Ambivert

3. Which is not a technique of extrinsic motivation?

a. Reward

b. Punishment

c. Self appraisal

d. Audio visual aids

4. How many types of aggression are there in sports?

a. 5 b. 3 c. 4 d. 6

5. Which is not a type of motivation?

a. Intrinsic motivation

b. Social motivation

c. Extrinsic motivation

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions

1. What is the role of psychology in sports?

Ans. Psychology plays a vital role in enhancing the performance of players to a great extent. Psychological factors like learning, interest, attitude, motivation, emotion, stress, etc., largely affect the performance of players. 

With the help of psychology, players as well as instructors can understand the weak areas and devise ways to bring improvement.

Therefore, the knowledge of psychology helps the physical educators and the coaches to understand the behaviour of players and how desirable changes and modifications can be brought in their behavioral pattern to improve the level of their performance.

2. Explain the meaning of personality with the help of definitions.

Ans. Personality is basically a set of characteristics like attitude, habits, traits, etc., possessed by a person which greatly influences his motivation, emotion and behavior in different situations. 

It reveals the psychological make up of an individual through his behavior. Personality is a dynamic and continuous process of  learning in which an individual acquires different psychological characteristics. 

The word ‘personality’ is also used to represent all the factors inherited or  acquired, which make up an individual. 

Some definitions of personality are as follows

According to Warren, “Personality is the entire organization of a human being at any stage of development.”  

According to Guildford, “Personality is an individual’s unique pattern of traits which distinguishes one individual from the other.” 

3. What are the types of personality as given by Sheldon?

Or Discuss the Sheldon types of personality in detail. (CBSE 2020)

Ans. The personality type on the basis of physical attributes is given by William Herbert Sheldon. These are as follows

(i) Endomorphs. They have a pear-shaped and rounded physique. They have short arms and legs. They are more inclined to become obese.

They are most suitable for activities in which great strength is required. Sports like weight-lifting and power-lifting are most suitable for endomorphs.

(ii) Ectomorphs. They are usually referred to as slim persons because their muscles and limbs are elongated. They have great difficulty in gaining weight.

They have flat chest and have less muscle mass. They are best suited for games and sports like gymnastics.

(iii) Mesomorphs. They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph.

They have broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and average body fat.

They are well proportioned. They are physically capable of doing a lot of activities and tend to be athletically aggressive. They are adventurous, energetic and competitive.     

4. Write any three personality types that are formulated by Carl Jung.

Ans. The types that are formulated by Carl Jung are described as follows

(i) Extroverts-Introverts An extrovert is more open as the direction of energy is derived and expressed in the external world, environment and surroundings. On the other hand, an introvert is mainly confined to the internal world.

(ii) Sensing-Intuition Sensing means that the person perceives information that he receives through the senses or external world.  

On the other hand, intuition means that the person believes mainly the information that he receives  through the inner self or imaginary world.

(iii) Thinking-Feeling Thinking means a person processes or makes a decision by logical reasoning.

On the other hand, feeling means that a person  processes information based on emotions.

5. Differentiate between Extroverts and Introverts.

Ans. The differences between extroverts and introverts are as follows:

ExtrovertsIntroverts
They are very outgoing, confident, lively and make friends easily.  They are reserved, too self-conscious and more interested in their own thoughts and ideas.
Actors politician group leaders are extrovertsPoets, artists, writers, philosophers are introverts usually.
Extroverts are more open as the direction of energy is derived and expressed in external world, Introverts are mainly confined to their internal world i.e. their own self.

6, Extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation Justify?

Ans. Intrinsic motivation is within the individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Sometimes extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation because the physical appearance of something

i.e. reward or punishment has more influence on the mind of an athlete than his own desire to succeed. Therefore, it is important to encourage students to achieve excellence rather than rely on rewards and punishments only.

7. What is meant by motivation? Explain any two techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.    (All India 2017)

Ans. Motivation means a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction. Techniques of  motivation for higher achievement in sports are as follows

(i) Active Participation: Active involvement of the coach/teacher develops healthy competition and interaction between the students. Teachers are able to identify the problems and explain how to solve those problems.

(ii) Rewards Announcing. Rewards that will be given, once the tasks are completed successfully, has a great effect on a person’s performance.

For example, parents giving chocolates to their children for good performance. Rewards are of various types and help in achieving the goal, like cash, prize, job, professional security, honor, social status, etc.

8. Discuss in detail any three techniques of motivation.    (CBSE 2020)

Ans. The three techniques of intrinsic motivation are as follows 

(i) Knowledge of the Goal. It is one of the most important techniques of motivation. A person should be made aware about the attainment of the goal. The player should be acquainted well with the aim and objectives of the goal.

For example, telling the player that the goal is to cover 100 m distance in shortest time. In this, knowledge of the goal helps the player to reach towards it,

(ii) Equipment and Surroundings. Modern equipment and healthy surroundings like well maintained playgrounds, latest sports equipment, etc., act: as motivating factors for high performance.

(iij) Positive Attitude. Positive attitude enhances the level of intrinsic motivation and helps in accepting external motivation, Sportsperson with a positive attitude gives his/her best to win the game.

Such people always show confidence in themselves despite having difficult situations. Coaches and trainers also play an important role in imparting a positive attitude. 

9. What are the types of aggression? (CBSE 2020)

Ans. There are three types of aggression in sports. They are as follows

(i) Instrumental Aggression. The main aim is to achieve a goal by using aggression. For example, a footballer using aggression to tackle his opponent by high intensity play without harming anyone.

(ii) Hostile Aggression. The main aim is to cause harm or injury to the opponent. It is usually an unplanned, impulsive reaction. For example, a bowler throwing a bouncer to deliberately injure the batsman.

(iii) Assertive Behavior. It is also referred to as assertive aggression. It is generally seen as a positive form of aggression. In ground, it simply means to stand up for your values in an unthreatening manner, and involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s goals.

10. Explain Assertive behavior in detail.

Ans. Assertive behavior is also referred to as assertive aggression. It is generally seen as a positive form of  aggression. In ground, it simply means to stand up for your values in an unthreatening manner, and involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s goals.

For an act to be assertive, it must be a goal directed with no specific intention to harm along with the use of legitimate force with no rules broken.

Thus, assertive behavior should include four components tiz. it should be goal-oriented, should not be intended to harm, should use only legitimate force and should not break any rule of the sport. 

11. Why do players show hostile aggression on the field?

Ans. Players who want to achieve success quickly or are not able to manage their emotions, show hostile aggression towards another player.

Sometimes players lose their self-control or are not able to manage humiliation and feel hurt and insulted, then they show hostile aggression as a form of revenge. 

Usually, new players show greater hostility than experienced players. Such aggression is against the spirit of the game. Hostile aggression may also arise as a result of bad feelings, jealousy, insecurity and threat. 

Here, the aim is to harm the player who becomes the reason for bad feelings. However, hostile aggression may be planned or unplanned to cause injury to the intended player on the field.

12. Distinguish between instrumental and hostile aggression.

Ans. The difference between instrumental and hostile aggression are as follows:

Instrumental AggressionHostile Aggression
It is a positive kind of aggression as the aim is to achieve a goal/target.It is a negative kind of aggression as the aim is to cause harm or injury to others.
It arises from the need to excel and to do better.It arises from insults, hurt feelings, jealousy and threats.
Here, the aim is to excel by improving their own performanceHere, the aim is to excel but devising ways to reduce the performance of others.

  Long Answer (LA) Type Questions

1. Explain the structure of personality. Describe the role of sports in developing the personality. (Delhi 2016)

Ans. The word ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ meaning ‘the mask’. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play.

To an ordinary person, the word ‘personality’ conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics. 

Sports plays an important role in developing the personality in the following ways

(i) Development of Physique. A good physique can be developed by regular training which becomes simple by participation in sports. A well-built physique exhibits a good personality that is attractive and impressive.

(ii) Relieves stress. Stress can be relieved by playing any type of sport. Sports help one combat anxiety, depression and stress. When the stress is relieved from the person, it improves the personality of that person,

(iii) Social Skills. Sports help in developing social skills as players play together. bond with each other, share their problems and worries as well as cooperate with each other.

(iv) Discipline. Sports help in making a person disciplined as it is essential to practise, complete all the tasks on time without fear of failure. This helps in making a good personality.

2. What is a personality trait? Explain about the related theory in detail.

Or Elaborate any three components of the Big Five Theory of personality. (CBSE 2020)

Ans. Personality trait refers to the quality or characteristics that describe a personality. In order to classify different personalities, they are divided into five parts which is known as the big five personality model.

Each part of the model describes a personality trait which is as follows

(i) Openness. Refers to how a person is inclined to face cultural norms. Its characteristics are imagination, insight. creativity, adventurous and abstract thinking. They are open to change.

(ii) Conscientiousness. Refers to dutiful and disciplined life. The characteristics include high level of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, goal directed behaviors and risk taking ability.

(iii) Extroversion. It refers to the type of emotional expression and attitude. It’s characteristics include sociability, talkative and assertiveness. It shows how social a person is, or how loving, caring and warm.

(iv) Agreeableness. Refers to the attributes like cooperation, kindness, trust, affection and other social behaviors. It also shows a dependable, trustworthy and caring personality.

(v) Neuroticism. Refers to nervousness, worrying nature and anxiety. The characteristics are sadness, moodiness, emotional instability and irritability.

3. Discuss about the psychological benefits of exercise in detail.

Ans. The psychological benefits of exercise are as follows

(i) Enhanced Mood. Exercise increases the supply of certain neurotransmitters in the brain that keep one happy as well as boosting endorphins which are ‘feel-good’ chemicals. These chemicals help in uplifting the mood, thereby reducing depression.

(ii) Reduces Anxiety and Stress. Exercise is correlated to a reduction in anxiety as exercise stimulates anti-anxiety. It removes the build up of stress hormones in the body. Exercise also improves sleep which helps in reducing stress.

(iii) Improved Self-Esteem. Exercise has a positive influence on our perception of ourselves, providing a sense of accomplishment as we master skills, improve our body image and self-worth. It is a part of a positive coping strategy.

(iv) Emotional Control. Exercise helps to control various emotions such as depression, anger and anxiety. It also helps to channelise the emotions in a positive way. This helps in the overall development of an individual.

(v) Keep Mentally Fit. Regular exercise prevents degenerative diseases that occur with age. This prevents cognitive decline by keeping the brain healthy. As a result, a person doing regular exercises is mentally fit.

4. What are the reasons behind doing exercises?

Ans. The main reasons behind doing exercises are as follows

(i) Longevity People who are physically active live longer. Regular exercise habits reducesÅhe risk of dying prematurely.

(ii) Weight Control. Regular physical activity helps to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Exercises speed up the rate of energy usage, resulting in increased metabolism. When metabolism increases,  the body weight remains under-control.

(iii) Bone Strength. An active lifestyle benefits bone density. Regular weight-bearing exercise promotes bone formation, delays bone loss and protects against osteoporosis (a form of bone loss associated with aging).

(iv) Strong Immune System. Regular exercise is beneficial for the immune system. Exercise or physical  activity may help flush bacteria out of the lungs and airways.

This increases the immunity of the body and reduces the chance of getting a cold, flu or other illness.

(v) Cholesterol Lowering Effect. Physical exercise favorably influences blood cholesterol levels in our body. Exercise positively alters cholesterol metabolism by increasing the production and action of several enzymes in the body.

(vi) Improves Psychological Health. Exercise plays a vital role in improving and maintaining our psychological or emotional health as it releases chemicals like endorphins into our brain which makes us feel happier,

It also helps in combating the problems of anxiety, depression and stress. It can help in improving self-esteem and self-confidence of an individual.

(vii) Enhanced Physical Appearance. Exercise can enhance our physical appearance and helps us to maintain a healthy physical appearance for a healthy life.

Case Based Questions

1. Carl Lewis is a renowned long jumper. Whenever he is going to jump in a competition, he asks the audience to clap their hands till the completion of his jump. (CBSC Question Bank 2021) 

(i) What do you understand by motivation?

Ans. Motivation means inspiration, an inner urge to do something or to achieve a target or a goal.

(ii) How many types of motivation are there?

Ans. There are two types of motivation. These are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic means internally motivated and extrinsic means motivation from outside.

2. Vijay is a football player of Kennedy School. He is famous for his aggressive play in the field. Because of his aggression he scored many goals. At the same time, he was punished for his aggressive behavior with opponent.

(i) In what ways players show aggressive behavior?

Ans. Players show aggressive behavior by hitting or using abusive language. They may also push, insult or threaten other players.

(ii) What kind of aggression is shown by Vijay?

Ans. The land of aggression shown by Vijay is hostile aggression. He may have insulted, hurt, used abusive languages against other players and he was punished for the same.

3. The knowledge of psychology helps the physical educators and the coaches to understand the behavior of players and how desirable changes and modifications can be brought in their behavioral pattern to improve the level of their performance. Based on this passage, answer the questions.

(i) What is sports psychology?

Ans. It is the branch of psychology that deals with the study of human behavior on the play field, both under preeti and in competitive situations, to bring out qualitative improvement.

(ii) Which psychological factors aC[öet the  of players ?

Ans. Factors like interest, attitude, stress, tnolivation, aggression, jealousy, anxiety, etc, allöet the perlortuanee of players,


Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Physical Education notes of chapter 9 Psychology and sports. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 12 Term 2 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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