Sports & Nutrition | Chapter 5 Notes | 2023

Sports And Nutrition

Sports and nutrition both are interrelated. Without proper nutrition sportsman will not be able to perform well, no matter how skillful an Athlete he is. 

Every physical activity needs energy to perform, and without proper nutrition, our body is unable to release sufficient energy.

Nutrition plays a very vital role in our growth and development. It is required to maintain good health. 

Nutrition is the science of food in which consumed food is digested, nutrients are absorbed and distributed to the tissue for utilisation.

Concept of Balance Diet And Nutrition

sport and nutrition

Nutrients are the chemical compounds in foods which are most essential for our life and health. It provides us with energy for work, It is the building blocks for repair and growth. 

There are five major nutrients: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals. Nutrients are divided into two categories Macro and Micro Nutrients.

Balance Diet

A balanced diet in nutrition is a diet which contains all nutrients (macro and micro) in a correct proportion for efficient working of the body. 

In other words, it is the intake of the appropriate type and adequate amount of food, to supply energy and to support growth and development of an individual.

Functions of Balance Diet

It provides sufficient energy It helps in optimum growth and development 
It improves the proper functioning of organs 
It helps to recover fast. The immune system becomes strong
It improves health status 
It also improves metabolism 
It prevents a deficiency disease 
Helps in maintaining body weight 
The overall efficiency of the body improves 

Factors affecting diet 

  • Age 
  • Gender 
  • Workout or Profession 
  • Bodyweight 
  • Specific sports diet 
  • Sufficient roughage 
  • Pregnant or feeding mother 
  • Diet during a health problem 
  • Seasonal food 
  • Climatic conditions 
  • Natural diet 
  • Doctor’s recommendation 
  • Eating habits and social customs

Nutritive Components of Diet

Macro And Micro Nutrient:

Food Sources And Functions

The nutrients that your body needs to promote growth and development and regulate bodily processes are divided into two groups: Macronutrients and Micronutrients. 

Macronutrients are the nutrients your body needs in larger amounts, viz. carbohydrates, protein, and fat. These nutrients provide your body energy or calories. 

Micronutrients are the nutrients your body needs in smaller amounts, which are commonly referred to as vitamins and minerals.


Carbohydrates are the main source of nutrition. It supplies energy for all types of physical and mental activities. It is the major fuel for muscular contraction

It provides instant energy, but this energy does not store for a long. Carbohydrates are also termed as energy-yielding food.

Carbohydrates are the compound of Carbon(C), Hydrogen(H), Oxygen(O). One gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories of energy. 

That means, if we consume 400 gram during a day, we get 1600 calories from only carbohydrates. So we have to be very calculative while taking it. 

It should be taken as per our physical activities. Extra carbs which don’t burn will convert into Fats

Types of Carbohydrates

Simple Carbohydrates: 

This kind of carb in nutrition provides immediate energy. There are various kinds of sugar present in this, like Glucose, fructose, lactose, and galactose. These carbs are soluble in water.

Sources: Fruits, low-fat milk, table sugar, honey, jam, vegetables like potatoes, candy, etc.

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carb is starch which contains various types of sugar molecules to form glycogen. This glycogen releases slow energy as compared with simple carbs. They are not soluble in water. 

Sources: Bread, cereals, vegetables, whole pulses.


Protein is the basic structure of all living cells. They are complex organic compounds which form chains of amino acids which contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen. It is also called bodybuilding food.

A correct quantity of proteins is needed every day for growth and development. It helps to repair worn-out tissues. It is the main component of muscles, organs, and fluids like enzymes, hormones and blood.

One gram of protein provides 4 Kcal. Thus, if you take 50 gram of protein, you are getting 50×4= 200 calories.

Daily protein requirements depend upon individual activities. One kilogram of body weight needs one gram of protein. 

Thus, if your body weight is 70 kg you need 70 gram of protein every day, and if your workout is heavy, you need even more protein than normal.

(CAUTION: High Intake of protein creates an overload on Kidney and liver. Also, it leads to dehydration.)

Protein deficiency diseases are MARASMUS and KWASHIORKOR.

Types of protein

There are two types of protein:

Essential protein:

There are 9 essential amino acids which we have to take from external food sources because they are not produced in our body. 

The sources of essential proteins are pulses, milk, dairy products, soybeans, egg, meat, etc. They are required for the growth of tissues 

Non essential proteins:

There are more than 13 non-essential proteins, the body requires them in less quantity. It helps in the synthesis of essential protein. 

The sources of non-essential proteins are grain, dry fruits, vegetables.


Fat contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. It is one of the important sources of nutrition. Fats are energy yielding food which stores inside our body and are used as an emergency source of energy. It converts into fatty acid.

Fat acts as a source of energy during long-duration work. Fats are important for the proper functioning of glands and other important organs. It also keeps us warm.

One gram of fat provides 9 kcal. Thus, if you take 50 gram of protein, you are getting 50×9= 450 calories.

Types of Fatty acids

There are two types of fatty acid present in food

Saturated fatty acid

They contain chains of Carbon atoms. Intake of saturated fat increases the chances of heart disease due to an increase in high cholesterol in the blood. It provides high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Sources: Animal fat, full cream milk, cream, butter, coconut oil, palm oil, ghee and all fast foods.

Unsaturated Fatty Acid  

It provides low-density lipoprotein(LDL) which is good for our body. It helps in lowering blood cholesterol.

It is further divided into two categories

  • Polyunsaturated Fatty acid
  • Monounsaturated Fatty acid

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.

Food Sources: 

For Omega-3 PUFA foods

  • Fish oil from fatty fish like herring, trout, sardines, salmon, and mackerel.
  • Seafood like scallops and mussels.
  • Nuts like walnuts.
  • Seeds like flax, chia, and sunflower seeds, Tofu.
  • Plant-based oils like canola and olive oil.
  • Eggs.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled.

Food sources: 

  • Olive, peanut, and canola oils
  • Avocados
  • Nuts such as almonds, hazelnuts, and pecans
  • Seeds such as pumpkin and sesame seeds


Vitamins are complex compounds of Carbon. It is micronutrients. Vitamins are very essential for the normal functioning of our body. Absence of any kind of vitamin causes certain deficiency disease.

Vitamins are divided into two groups.

Fat Soluble Vitamin – These are Vitamins mins A, D, E and K. These vitamins are soluble in fat.

Water-Soluble Vitamin These Vitamins are soluble in water. These Vitamins are vitamin B and C

Fat Soluble Vitamin

Vitamin AEyes and skinNight blindnessMilk, butter,
egg, carrot, tomatoes
Vitamin DStrong bones and teethRicketsMilk, Butter, vegetables, sunlight.
Vitamin EProtect cell membraneAnaemiaMilk, Butter, meat
Vitamin KBlood clotting and heal woundsAnaemiaCabbage, soyabean, fish, wheat, egg, meat

Water Soluble Vitamin

Vitamin CHealing wounds, maintain ligaments, tendonsScurvyLemon, orange, Amla, tomatoes
Vitamin B1
Metabolism of Carbohydrates. Maintains liver, KidneyBeri-BeriBlack beans, lentils, Asparagus
Vitamin B2
Growth of Red Blood Cells(RBC)Retarded growthCereal, bread, egg, vegetables
Vitamin B3
Lower cholesterol, ease arthritis and boost brain functionPellagra (lost skin sensitivity)Meat, poultry, red fish, cereals
Vitamin B5
Making blood cellsInsomnia, DepressionCereals, mushrooms, nuts, milk
Vitamin B6
Form haemoglobinLips corner crack, DepressionFish, peanut, soyabean, Oats
Vitamin B7
Metabolize fats, carbohydrates, and proteinHair loss, red rash in the faceBread, cauliflower, mushrooms
Vitamin B9
(Folic Acid)
Reproduction, growth and developmentAnaemiaBeans, peanut, sunflower seed, seafood
Vitamin B12
Metabolism, energy transfer Reduction in blood cellsMeat, fish, milk, cheese


Minerals are required for healthy teeth, bone and muscles. It helps the transmission of nerve impulses, the formation of hormones, maintenance of Heartbeat etc.

Mineral are classified into two groups macro and micro Minerals

Macro Minerals

MineralsHelps InDeficiencySourses
CalciumGrowth and development of bones and teethRicketsCheese, milk, yoghurt, cereals, vegetables
PotassiumMake nervous system strongFatigue, muscle cramps and abnormal heart rhythms.Banana, tomatoes, peanut
SodiumMuscular activities and transmission of nerve impulsesNausea, headache and fatigueTable salt, pickles, Butter
MagnesiumRepairs and maintain body cellsFatigue, muscle cramps, mental problemsMeat, brown rice, whole grain
PhosphorusFormation of bones and teethRickets, osteoporosisFish, milk, cod liver, egg

Micro Minerals

MineralsHelps InDeficiencySourses
IodineProduction of hormones in the thyroid gland.Goitre (Swollen Thyroid Gland)Iodised salt, sea food
IronProduction of haemoglobinAnaemiaLiver, meat, banana, spinach
ChromiumStimulates insulin activitiesDiabetessoyabean, carrots, Bajra, barley

Nutritive And Non Nutritive Components of Diet

Nutritive Components of Diet

Nutritive components are essential for overall health and well-being. Eating a variety of foods in appropriate portions can help ensure you’re getting the nutrients your body needs to thrive.


  • Main source of energy for the body.
  • Found in foods like grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.
  • Simple carbs (sugars) and complex carbs (starches) provide different energy levels.


  • Essential for growth, tissue repair, and immune function.
  • Found in meat, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, and dairy products.
  • Composed of amino acids, some of which the body can’t produce on its own.


  • Also a source of energy and vital for absorbing certain vitamins.
  • Unsaturated fats (healthy fats) found in nuts, seeds, and oils are good for heart health.
  • Saturated fats (unhealthy fats) are present in animal products and should be consumed in moderation.


  • Play crucial roles in various bodily functions.
  • Examples include vitamin C (found in citrus fruits) and vitamin D (from sunlight and some foods).


  • Important for bone health, nerve function, and enzyme activity.
  • Examples include calcium (dairy), iron (red meat), and potassium (bananas).


  • A type of carbohydrate that aids in digestion and maintains bowel health.
  • Found in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.


  • Essential for hydration and proper bodily functions.
  • Drink plenty of water daily to stay adequately hydrated.


  • Help protect the body from free radicals and oxidative stress.
  • Found in colorful fruits and vegetables like berries, spinach, and carrots.


  • Natural compounds found in plants that promote health.
  • Include flavonoids, carotenoids, and polyphenols.

Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

Components which do not provide energy


Our body consist of 70℅ of water in total body weight. An n adult needs 2 – 3 litres of water daily for a normal life.

Water in the blood helps in the transportation of nutrients to various cells of the body. 

Importance of water

  1. Excretion of waste products. 
  2. Regulates body temperature.
  3. Transportation of nutrients
  4. Maintains body fluids
  5. Eliminates body toxin
  6. Lubrication of joints
  7. Improves skin quality
  8. Kidney function improves
  9. Boost physical performance
  10. Improve digestion


It is known as fibre, which is a very important part of nutrition. It is the indigestible portion of food.

Fibre comes from the part of plant-based foods. It helps in digestion, prevent constipation, and helps to manage cholesterol levels.

Some other sources: Artificial Sweeteners, colour compounds, flavour compounds

Eating for weight control

A stable weight based on a balance between the energy which you get from food and the energy you use. We must provide good nutrition for our body to maintain a healthy weight.

If calorie consumption is more than calorie burn, than our body stores extra calories, and converts them into fat. When a person burns up more calories than they consume, they lose weight.

We use energy during a day in three ways

  • Energy expended during rest (Basal Metabolism)
  • Energy used to break down food (Thermogenesis) 
  • Energy used during activities

Healthy weight

Healthy weight leads a healthy life with a reduced risk of diseases. It means that an individual who has a healthy weight, he can lead a healthy life. 

Healthy weight lowers an individual’s risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.

A healthy weight can be calculated by Body Mass compound. BMI can be calculated by…

 BMI=  Weight (Kg) / Height in m²

Under weightBelow 20Below 18
Healthy weight20 – 2519 – 24
Over weight26 – 2925 – 29
Obese30 above30 above

Methods to control healthy body weight

  • Take a balanced diet
  • Drinks lots of water
  • Eat a lot of fibrous food
  • Regular Medical Checkup
  • Avoid Fatty foods
  • Do regular physical Activity
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Avoid junk food
  • Eat meals in small shifts
  • Do not do crash dieting
  • Never try slimming pills
  • Avoid overeating

Pitfall Of Dieting

An individual who is overweight wants to reduce weight by any means and methods, without realising it’s side effects. 

They starve to reduce weight. Many times they skip meals to lose weight, sometimes take slimming pills. This causes serious health problems.

Major Pitfalls of Dieting

  • Extreme Reduction of Calories sometimes takes less than 1000 calories a day.
  • Restriction on some nutrients like Carbohydrates, fat
  • Often skipping meals
  • Intake only liquid food
  • Intake of only labelled and processed foods.
  • Consume low energy diet

Food Intolerance

Food Intolerance is when a person has difficulty in digesting a particular food. Food cannot be properly digested by the digestive system. 

The main cause of food intolerance in any human being is the complete absence of enzymes, which is responsible for breaking down or absorbing the food elements. 

Symptoms: Nausea, Vomiting, Pain in joints, headache and rashes on the skin, Diarrhoea, sweating, palpitations, burning sensations on the skin stomach.

Food  Myths

Myth–  Eggs increases cholesterol level 

Fact: Eggs are one of the best sources of energy. Egg provides various nutrients, so taking at least one egg daily is advisable.

Myth: Food which has very low fat or no fat is good.

Fact: Our body needs fats for energy, tissue repair and to transport vitamin A.D, E,.K. 

Myth: Crash Dieting or Fasting lose weight.

Fact: It may give fast results but has a lot of side effects. 

Myth: Food eaten late-night is more fattening.

Fact: It doesn’t make much change.

Myth: Low-fat milk has less calcium than full-fat milk.

Fact: Skimmed and semi-skimmed have more calcium 

Myth: Vegetarians cannot build muscles.

Fact: Vegetarians can build muscles by eating veg food rich in proteins, like pulses, nuts, milk 

Myth: Healthy food is very expensive.

Fact: All tinned, stored, packed food is expensive. Whereas local & seasonal foods are not so expensive.

Importance of Diet in Sports-Pre, During and Post competition Requirements

Diet plays a pivotal role in an athlete’s performance and overall well-being.

Proper nutrition is essential during all stages of sports, including preparation, competition, and recovery.

Pre-Competition Diet:

  • Before the event, athletes should focus on consuming nutrient-rich foods to optimize energy levels and endurance.
  • Carbohydrates should be the mainstay, providing a steady source of fuel for muscles.
  • Lean proteins aid in muscle repair and recovery while also supporting immune function.
  • Adequate hydration is crucial; athletes should aim to maintain optimal fluid levels.

During-Competition Diet:

  • Staying hydrated is paramount during sports activities to prevent performance decline.
  • Easily digestible carbohydrates, like sports drinks and energy gels, help maintain energy levels.
  • Some athletes may benefit from consuming small, easily digestible snacks during prolonged events.

Post-Competition Diet:

  • After the competition, recovery is a top priority to replenish depleted nutrients and repair muscles.
  • Consuming a combination of carbohydrates and proteins within the first 30 minutes is vital for muscle glycogen restoration and repair.
  • Antioxidant-rich foods aid in reducing inflammation and supporting the immune system.
  • Hydration continues to be essential, as athletes lose significant amounts of fluid during intense activities.

Sports and nutrition chapter 2 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A balanced diet is a complete diet when it contains an adequate amount of:

a. Complex Carbohydrates

b. Nutrients

c. Animal fat

d. water

2. Vitamin D makes ________ strong.

a. Bones

b. Muscles

c. Lungs

d. Heart

3. Which of the following is not a part of balanced diet?

a. Probiotics

b. Proteins

c. Vitamins

d. Carbohydrates

4. Maximum Carbohydrates are obtained from:

a. Whole grain food

b. Fish

c. Plant oil

d. Nuts

5. If BMI of a person is 28. It is considered as:

a. Overweight

b. Underweight

c. Normal

d. Obese

6. The body needs vitamins and minerals because:

a. They give energy to our body

b. They help carry out metabolic reactions

c. They insulate the body organs

d. They withdraw heat from the body

7. ________ Vitamin keeps eyes and skin healthy.

a. Vitamin A

b. Vitamin C

c. Vitamin K

d. Vitamin B

8. Almost ________ part of our body is made up of water.

a. Two-third

b. One-third

c. One fourth

d. Three-forth

9. Nutrients are ________ substances present in food.

a. Essential

b. Irrelevant

c. Harmful

d. Rich

10. Which if the following food item contains carbohydrates and fats?

a. Bread and butter

b. Rice and Pulses

c. Potato and Tomato

d. Tomato and Almond

11. Sources of Proteins include:

a. Fish

b. Spinach

c. Potato

d. Cucumber

Short And Long Answer Type Questions

1. What do you understand about food myths?    (2020)

Ans. Food myths are common ideas about food that are not correct. For example, people think potatoes cause weight gain while the truth is that how we cook them determines if they lead to weight gain or not.   

Similarly, the belief that yellow of an egg is harmful is not correct as is the myth that full-fat milk is to be avoided or eating fruits at night is bad for health.

2. What are the pitfalls of dieting?    (2020)

Ans. Pitfalls of dieting point to the fact that too rigid diet controls are bad. We need adequate nutrients and calories to function well. When we cut back too much, we lose muscle mass but retain fat which leads to unhealthy body composition. 

Essential nutrients are in deficit. Dieters tend to give up exercise and also may gain unnecessary calories from drinks as they believe that giving up solid food equals dieting.

3. Define a Balanced Diet. Explain any four Micronutrients. (2020) Ans. Balanced diet is one which contains macronutrients and micronutrients in the right quantities. 

While there are many micronutrients, the important ones in our diet include Vitamins and Minerals. Thus, among the fat-soluble Vitamins, Vitamin D aids calcium absorption and helps maintain bone and muscle health. 

Exposure of skin to sunlight helps form this Vitamin. Another important micronutrient is Vitamin C which  is an antioxidant that helps in the formation of connective tissues in skin and bones. 

Found in citrus fruits and many vegetables, it is important to prevent fatigue and diseases such as scurvy. Calcium is another important mineral responsible for bone and teeth health and is found in dairy products while iron is important for blood formation.

4. Write briefly about “Micronutrients”.    (2019) 

Ans. Micronutrients are nutrients that we need in very small quantities but on a daily basis. They serve very important functions. All the chemical reactions inside our body are aided by micronutrients which are mostly vitamins and minerals.

5. Why is roughage considered a necessary part of a diet? (2019, 2019 C) 

Ans. Roughage is important and is known as fiber. Soluble fiber helps lower cholesterol and blood glucose. Insoluble fiber makes waste heavier and softer so that it can pass through the intestines more easily.

6. Suggest two reasons why our body requires food supplements. (2019) 

Ans. Many foods currently do not have the nutrients we need, so people don’t get enough from their daily diet. Also, people may not eat enough variety of food, so they lack certain nutrients because of poor food choices.

7. Discuss about meal intake guidelines for pre, during and post-sports event. (2019)  

Ans. Before competition, a sportsperson should focus on consuming a balanced meal containing carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—about 1-2 hours before the competition. 

They should drink lots of fluids, especially water, before competition to keep the body hydrated. During competition, a sport drink containing 30 grams of carbohydrate and 15 grams of protein (in 500 ml water) per hour of exercise is strongly recommended. After competition, post-workout nutrition requires two things: protein to aid protein synthesis, carbohydrate to replace muscle glycogen.

8. Explain macronutrients and their role in our diet. (2019, Al 2016) 

Ans. Macronutrients are the nutrients that we need in bulk, by the grams. These nutrients are proteins, fats and carbohydrates and need to be consumed daily in the right proportion.

Proteins are the building blocks of our body. They are vital for the growth and development of the human body. Proteins are needed to build muscles, grow nails and hair and protect skin and tissues of our internal organs. 

Most hormones are of protein origin. We need to take 30 percent of our calorie needs from protein. Protein shortage causes various diseases that can deteriorate the quality of life and even  cripple some.

Carbohydrates are the energy sources in our food. Our diet should derive 40 percent calories from this  source. Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex carbohydrates.     

Simple carbohydrates are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. They are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk and milk products.

Complex carbohydrates are the “good carbs”. Examples of complex carbs are whole grains, starchy vegetables and beans.

Fat in food is essential so that we can absorb the fat-soluble nutrients. Fat acts as a protection to the organs, many of which have support only from the surrounding fat. 

Also, fat under the skin helps regulate body temperature and store and produce many hormones such as leptin. Current science suggests that in our food, 30 percent of the calories should come from fat.

9. Discuss the requirement of food supplements in children’s diet.    (2019)

Ans. In some children, supplementation may be important. Vitamin and mineral supplements are required if the diet is strictly vegetarian. 

Critical vitamins and minerals which can be deficient in a vegan diet include vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron, vitamin A, calcium, zinc, and riboflavin. 

Inadequate vitamin D intake and decreased exposure to sunlight causes rickets, so supplements will be important. Children who have celiac disease are at a higher risk of nutritional deficiencies and may need supplements. 

Additionally, children who have a poor appetite, drink a lot of sugar-sweetened beverages, take certain medications or have chronic medical conditions that interfere with intake may need a supplement. 

10. What do you mean by food intolerance?    (2018, Al 2017, 2016)

Ans. Food intolerance, also called food sensitivity, occurs when a person has difficulty digesting a particular food.

11. Fats are derived from two sources. Name them. (2017) 

Ans. Fats are derived both from animal and vegetable sources. Plant-based diets include foods that contain fats such as nuts and seeds and oils from grains and seeds. On the other hand, animal sources of fats are butter, whole milk, products made with whole milk, meats and eggs. 

12. What are the Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of diet? Explain. (Al 2017) 

Ans. Nutritive components of food are the constituents that supply calories and energy. The nutritive components are Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins. Other components of diet are also required which are called Non-Nutritive Components and include Vitamins, Minerals, Water and Fibre.

13. What are the symptoms of food intolerance? (2017) 

Ans. The symptoms of food intolerance include intestinal gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea.

14. Enlist two sources of iron and calcium.    (2015)

Ans. Iron-rich foods are green leafy vegetables and meat while calcium-rich foods are milk and cabbage.

15. Explain any five essential elements of diet.    (2015) 

Ans. Five essential elements of a diet are protein which builds up the muscles, carbohydrates that give us energy and fats that store energy as well as help absorb vitamins. Water helps circulate nutrition throughout the body and fibres help clean the intestines,

16. Vitamins are very essential for the working of the body and are divided into two groups. Explain them. (2015) 

Ans. Vitamins are divided into water-soluble vitamins that are absorbed in the water that we drink and fat soluble vitamins that need fats in foods to get absorbed. 

Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E & K while the rest, especially B complex, and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins, These are required on a daily basis in small quantities for the human body to

Important Questions

1. What role do micronutrients play in health and fitness? 

2. List the steps needed to control weight.

3. Explain the non-nutritive components of a diet and their role in the human body.

4. Discuss why protein is among the most important macronutrients, especially in sports.

5. Discuss in detail food allergy with examples.

6. Differentiate between food intolerance and food allergy with examples.

7. Explain the concept of food myths with a few examples. 

Case-based/Source-based Integrated Questions

1. Mr Shah, a renowned cricketer, was the chief guest at the school Annual Day. He talked about his past and how difficult it was for sportspersons from relatively impoverished backgrounds, especially in the past when there was limited knowledge of how nutrition influenced sports performance. He talked about the need for balanced nutrition with a special role of the macronutrients.   

(a) What is a balanced diet?

Ans. A balanced diet, Mr Shah explained, was a diet which had a balanced mix of protein, fats, carbohydrates and water and micronutrients like vitamins and minerals in the right proportion.

(b) What macronutrients did Mr Shah mention?

Ans. Mr Shah focused on proteins as being essential as building blocks of muscles. He explained that good fats were not only a source of energy but also helped absorb many vital vitamins. 

Correct type and quantity of carbohydrates are necessary to fuel the energy expended in sports while proper hydration by drinking adequate water was equally important.

(c) What role did he attribute to proper hydration and drinking adequate water?

Ans. Mr Shah rated water as among the most essential nutrients a sportsperson needs. Water is not only the most vital in body composition but also helps transport other nutrients to the cells. 

He also explained that water keeps the muscles and other organs supple, removes body waste and helps digest the food we eat.

2. Most people consider consuming fat in food as unhealthy. Ms Shefali, the school nutrition counselor delivered a talk on nutrition to the sports team of the school and explained why good, adequate fat in the diet was desirable.

(a) Why do we need fat in the diet?

Ans. Fats are important as they help in the absorption of the four fat-soluble vitamins. Ms Shefali explained that fats in our body help buffer the internal organs and prevent them from getting hurt. 

Fat under the skin helps regulate temperature and produces many hormones. Also, the essential fats can only be obtained from food, so judicious intake of fats in the diet is very desirable. 

(b) What is the role of fats in vitamin absorption?

Ans. Four vitamins, namely Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K, are absorbed by the body only if there is adequate fat in the diet. While Vitamin A helps in normal vision, Vitamin D is good for bones as it helps absorb calcium and phosphorus. 

Vitamin D is also an immunity booster as is Vitamin E. Vitamin E is also a potent antioxidant while Vitamin K helps in blood clotting, bone metabolism and regulating calcium in the blood.

(c) Why is adequate Vitamin D important for sportspersons?

Ans. Vitamin D is very important for bone health. It regulates parathormone function, boosts immunity and decreases fatigue. Rapid healing of injuries is an advantage Vitamin D offers to sportspersons,

Final Words

From the above article, you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Physical Education notes of chapter 5 Sports and nutrition. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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