Training In Sports | Chapter 10 Notes | Class 12, 2023

Training In Sports

Concept of Talent Identification, Talent Development in Sports

Talent Identification is to ensure that the appropriate players are being selected. Selection must be done fairly and equitably. This requires a better understanding of player identification and the adoption of a suitable selection policy.

Selectors need to ensure that they are assessing the correct qualities and attributes and to ensure consistency in selection. 

Talent identification is the process of recognizing current players that have the potential to excel. It involves an attempt to predict the future capacity of performance of an individual.

Talent identification is based on a number of areas, these being physical attributes, physiological skills, technical skills, psychological skills, cognitive skills, and social skills

It is important that the talent identification program has a clear focus that places the emphasis on identifying players with long-term potential rather than current, tournament-winning ability.

Sports Training Cycle

The sports training cycle also known as Periodized Training works on the concept of overload and adaptation; by stressing the body over time, allowing it to recover, and then stressing it again, athletes can gradually build fitness.

By structuring your season with these cycles in mind, you can ensure that you’re building and recovering adequately for optimal adaptation.

Periodization is the process of dividing an annual training plan into specific time blocks, where each block has a particular goal and provides your body with different types of stress. 

This allows you to create some hard training periods and some easier periods to facilitate recovery. It also helps you to develop different physiological abilities during various phases of training. 

During base training, you focus on the development of aerobic and muscular endurance. 

During the intensity phase, this focus switches to lactate threshold and aerobic capacity (i.e., VO2 max)

As you enter the competition phase, greater emphasis is placed on boosting anaerobic capacity and neuromuscular power.

Most significantly, periodization is the best way to promote the training effect, which consists of changes in your cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal systems that result in greater speed and endurance. 

To develop an effective training program, it is important to understand the foundation of periodization. This foundation consists of three cycles: macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles.

sports training cycle


A macrocycle refers to your season as a whole. It is the longest cycle which incorporates all 52 weeks of the annual plan and also includes all four stages of a periodized training program (e.g., endurance, intensity, competition, and recovery).  

Macrocycle could be displayed as 4 periods;

Preparation, Pre-competition (optional), Competition, and Transition.

The preparation phase is further broken up into general and specific preparation. General preparation builds an aerobic base for an endurance athlete. Specific preparation would be to work on the proper form to be more efficient and to work more on the final format of the sport

The competitive phase can be several competitions, which lead to the main competition.

Transition phase It is important for psychological reasons, a year dedicating time towards training means some time off

It provides a bird’s-eye view of your training regimen and allows you to facilitate long-range planning,  e.g. if you want to prepare for a national championship event one year from now.

You can mark that date on your calendar and work to create a program that allows you to come to your peak at that time. You can make changes to your macrocycle throughout the year because of its length.


A mesocycle refers to a particular training block within that season; e.g. the endurance phase.

The mesocycle represents a specific block of training that is designed to accomplish a particular goal. This mesocycle may include three weeks of threshold intervals followed by a week of recovery.

Two very common mesocycles consist of 21 and 28-day training blocks. For example, a 25-year-old experienced competitor might use a 23/5 training pattern (i.e., a 28-day mesocycle). This consists of 23 days of relatively hard work followed by 5 days of recovery. Conversely, older or less experienced athletes may opt for a 16/5 training pattern (i.e., a 21-day mesocycle) that includes 16 days of hard training followed by 5 days of recovery.  


A microcycle refers to the smallest unit usually a week of training.

It is the shortest training cycle, typically lasting a week with the goal of facilitating a focused block of training. It consists of very hard workouts for two or three consecutive days followed by an equal amount of recovery. 

Here the goal is to improve key physiological abilities such as lactate threshold (the highest intensity a fit cyclist can maintain for 60 minutes) and aerobic capacity (the maximum amount of oxygen the body can consume during high-intensity exercise). Three or four microcycles are tied together to form a mesocycle.  

You can get the most out of your training by having a good understanding of each of the three cycles of periodization and then using these cycles to create a plan that allows you to peak for your most important events throughout the year.

Types And Methods To Develop Strength, Endurance, And Speed

Training in sports is very important to improve the performance of a player. Training should be specific, systematic, and scientifically based.

Each activity required specific types of physical fitness components and training methods are required to develop that component. 


training in sports

Strength is the ability of a muscle to overcome resistance. It is the total amount of force a muscle can exert. 

Different sports require different levels and types of strength, which can be improved through specific training. Strength can be measured in pounds or Dynes.

Types of Strength

Static Strength

It is the ability to act against resistance from one position without any movement, e.g. arm wrestling, powerlifting, or wall pushing. It is also known as isometric Strength.

Dynamic Strength

It is the ability to act against resistance with movement. Movements are visible when someone is doing dynamic strength training. It is divided into three parts.

  • Maximum Strength: It is the ability to act against maximum resistance. It is required in weightlifting, throwing, wrestling, etc.
  • Explosive Strength: It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed. It is the ability to forceful movement at the quickest possible time. It is generally required in jumping activities. This Strength can be measured by Dynamometer.
  • Strength Endurance: It is the ability to overcome resistance for a longer period under conditions of fatigue. This quality enables a person to sustain his working muscle group for an extended period.

Methods To Improve Strength

Isotonic Exercises

While doing exercises tension creates in working muscles and there is a change in length. Muscles get shortened and lengthened. 

Isotonic exercises tone up the muscle. Muscles become flexible. Activities like Jumping, running, and Weight lifting are some examples of isotonic exercises.

Isotonic Exercises are of two types:

  • Concentric: It is the upward movement of action in which flexor muscles shortens and extensor muscle lengthens in size.
  • Eccentric: It is the downward movement of action in which flexor muscles lengthen and extensor muscles shorten in length.

Isometric Exercises

In these Strength training exercises, the length of muscles remains the same during workouts. These exercises have no external movement but the tension created inside the muscle. 

In these exercises, the flexor and extensor muscles feel tremendous pressure but there is no movement. Examples of these exercises are pushing the wall, lifting heavy weights, pulling the rope in a tug of war, arm wrestling, etc.

Isokinetic Exercises

In these exercises, there is a movement with continuous tension in both the flexor and extensor muscles. In this muscles contract throughout the range of movement at a constant speed. 

Both flexor and extensor muscles contract simultaneously, as a result, both develop, thus it takes less time to build muscle. 

According to individual capacity, the speed of contraction can be adjusted in these exercises. With the help of these exercises, explosive Strength and strength endurance can be improved. Some examples are Swimming, Uphill Cycling, etc.


Endurance training

Endurance is the ability to sustain or continue the activity. In other words, it is the ability to resist fatigue for a longer period.

Endurance is required for almost all major sports. It is one of the important components for middle and long-distance races, football, hockey, basketball, handball, etc.

Types of Endurance

Muscular Endurance/Short-Term Endurance

Speed Endurance

This is the type of endurance in which the activity is done with high speed and intensity. This endurance is for a shorter duration ( from 30 to 60 sec) with 80℅ to 90℅ of top speed ability. 

This type of Endurance is required in medium-distance races, swimming, basketball, tennis, badminton, etc.

Strength Endurance

This type of activity is done powerfully and forcefully for a shorter duration. This duration is from 2 to 3 minutes. Strength endurance is generally performed in the absence of oxygen. It is required in wrestling, boxing, Judo, etc.

Long term Endurance 

This type of Endurance is required when the activity is done for a longer duration and the intensity or speed is slow. It delays fatigue, it is required for long-distance running, cycling, cross country, marathon, football, etc.

Methods To Improve Endurance

Continuous Training Method

It is one of the best methods for improving endurance. In this method, Athletes perform running for long periods without taking rest in between.

In this method, speed remains slow because the exercise is done for a longer period. This method develops a very high level of Endurance.

This method has three types:

Slow Continuous Training Method: This method is used by long-distance runners. Duration of workout is  1 – 2 hours, distance covered is 10 – 20km

Fast Continuous Training Method: This method is used by middle-distance runners. Duration of workout is 15 – 40 minutes, distance covered is 5 – 10km

Variable Continuous Training Method: This method is a combination of fast and slow pace continuous methods. Here the workout is done with a variable speed of 40-100 percent of the best capacity.

Advantages of Continuous Training Method

  • Increases glycogen in muscle
  • Increases the number and size of mitochondria
  • Increases efficiency of heart and lungs
  • Improves willpower and confidence

Interval Training Method

In this method, the principle of effort and incomplete recovery is followed. It is special endurance training that involves high-intensity workouts followed by incomplete rest. 

This method is the best method for endurance development. The Interval training method is based upon scientific principles where the load is controlled through various factors to provide incomplete recovery.

  • Volume or total distance
  • Intensity or speed of work
  • Duration of workout
  • Number of repetition
  • Duration of rest
  • Mode of recovery

In this training method, the total workout is done in small parts, where incomplete rest is given between each workout.

Workout – Rest – Workout – Rest…

The load can be increased by increasing the workout or by reducing the recovery

Fartlek Training Method

Fartlek training

Fartlek means speed play. It is a combination of continuous and interval training methods. In this method, an Athlete used a natural environment for a workout. 

In this method, speed is not pre-planned. He/she can change speed according to the surroundings (hills, rivers, forests, muddy roads, etc). Athletes are made free to choose their path. He may take a rest in between, and run fast or slow.

The only thing to keep in mind is that he needs to reach the finishing point at the desired time.

Advantages of the Fartlek Training Method

  • It can practice in the off-season period
  • It develops creativity and gives adventure
  • Natural motivation is there with no boredom
  • The art of self-learning is experienced


Speed is the ability to perform the movement at a faster rate. Speed depends on heredity but can be developed through proper training.

It is the capacity of moving a body with the greatest possible velocity.

Types of Speed

Types of Speed

Reaction Time: It is the time taken by the body to respond immediately after the stimulus. It is the first reaction to bring our body into action.

Acceleration Ability: It is the time taken by the body to reach maximum speed. This ability depends upon explosive strength, technique, and flexibility.

Speed of Movement: It is the time taken by the body to perform complete action.

Locomotor ability: It is the ability to maintain maximum speed for maximum distance.

Speed endurance: It is the ability to perform movements with high speed under conditions of fatigue.

Methods To Improve Speed

Acceleration Run

In this method, Athletes try to attain top speed as fast as possible. They run for 20 – 30 meter distances with maximum speed. 

This is repeated 5 to 10 times with a sufficient rest period.

The first few strides should be shorter and the frequencies of steps are very fast.

Pace Run Training Method

Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. For 800m training, athletes can run a distance of 300m or 20℅ of racing distance at full speed.

Types And Methods To Develop Flexibility And Coordination


Flexibility is when the joints can move to their maximum range. It is the ability to execute movement with greater range. 

It is affected by muscle length, adjoin ligaments, and tendons. Flexibility helps in preventing injuries, Improving Posture, making the joint healthy, and Improving balance.

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Types of Flexibility

Types of Flexibility

Passive Flexibility: Joints can move in maximum range with external help, e.g. stretching with a partner.

Active Flexibility: It is performed without external help
Active flexibility is further divided into two parts:

Static Flexibility: It is the flexibility performed from a stationary position. e.g. Chakrasana, toe touching

Dynamic Flexibility: It is the flexibility performed while in motion. This is required for gymnastics, diving, etc.

Methods To Improve Flexibility

  • Ballistic Method: In this method, individuals perform various stretching exercises while in motion. In this stretching the muscle with the help of swinging the limbs.
  • Static Stretching Method: In this method, various slow stretching exercises are done from a stationary position and hold the final position for some time.
  • Passive Flexibility Method: In this method, flexibility exercises are done with external help. Such as partner help, stretch ropes, bid role ball, bar stand, etc.
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques (PNF): This technique is used by advanced athletes for gaining flexibility. Here you move into a stretch position then your partner holds the limb in this position.

Coordinative Ability

Coordinative Ability is the ability of the body to perform the movement with perfection and efficiency. It is the ability to execute a sequence of movements smoothly and accurately.

Coordination is required for qualitative movement. It is the proper combination of strength, speed, endurance, and flexibility during movement.

Types of Coordination

Adaptive Ability: Ability to adjust the movement effectively based on changes.

Balance Ability: Ability to protect the body in a stable position

Rhythm Ability: The ability to observe the rhythm of a movement and to regain balance quickly.

Reaction Ability: Ability to react immediately and quickly to a signal. 

Coupling Ability: Ability to combine the movements of different body parts for performing a perfect sports movement.

Circuit Training-Introduction and its Importance

Circuit training is a form of body conditioning or endurance training or resistance training using high intensity. It targets strength-building or muscular endurance. An exercise “circuit” is one completion of all exercises.

This workout ups your heart rate and strengthens your muscles at the same time. Circuit training is basically performing any series of moves with minimal to no rest in between the moves. 

You can either rotate between stations or cycle through a series of moves using any form of resistance-dumbbells, kettlebells, sandbags, or even resistance band-to target your upper and lower body and core and build muscular strength. 

Your circuit will also include a sprint or plyometric (jump training) move to elevate your heart rate to improve your cardiovascular fitness.

Circuit training is a form of metabolic resistance training (MRT) that combines intense resistance exercises with very little recovery time in between the sets. 

What this means is that you are increasing your metabolism to burn fat while at the same time building strength and lean muscle mass.

Different Types of Circuit Training

Circuit training can be completely customized, meaning there are innumerable ways in which available are:

1. Strength Circuit Training: A strength circuit is a type of circuit training that consists of strength-centric, weight-bearing exercises. 

A strength circuit can be performed using free-weight exercises, machine-based exercises, or body-weight exercises. A mix of all these strength training modes can also be a part of strength circuit training.

2. Cardio Circuit Training: A cardiovascular workout can be made more interesting by performing a cardio circuit. A cardio circuit involves a quick succession of moves like speed skaters, jumping jacks, burpees, jump squats, and jumping rope. 

This circuit should be performed 2 to 3 times for a complete 20 to 30-minute routine.

3. Strength and Cardio Circuit Training

This type of circuit training is a circuit combining cardio with strength training moves that can burn up to 10 calories per minute. 

In this kind of circuit training, a strength training move, like squats, is immediately followed by a cardio move like sprinting the length of a basketball court, followed by another strength move like push-ups. This type of circuit training can be a complete body workout if a strength move for every major muscle group is included in it.

4. Sport-specific or Running Circuit Training: This type of circuit training is specially designed for athletes who wish to enhance their performance in a specific sport. 

5. Timed Circuit Training: This kind of circuit training involves working on a set time period for both exercise and rest intervals. For example, a typical timed circuit can involve 30 seconds of exercise and 30 seconds of rest in between every exercise.

6. Competition Circuit Training: Competition circuit training is a type of circuit training that is basically a timed circuit in which the performer pushes themselves to complete the maximum number of repetitions of an exercise in the set time period. The idea is to keep the time period the same but try to increase the number of repetitions they can do in the set time period.

7. Repetition Circuit Training: This is the ideal circuit training type when working with large groups of people having different levels of fitness and ability. While the fittest group may be able to do the maximum number of repetitions of each exercise, the intermediate group may be able to complete a lesser number of repetitions, and the beginners might do the least number of repetitions of each exercise.

Importance of Circuit Training

Circuit training is a bunch of aerobic exercises mixed up with resistance training to deliver a high-intensity workout. These exercises are performed one after the other in a circuit-with minimal rest in between. 

Since circuit training involves both aerobic and anaerobic exercises, this method of training is very flexible and can help one create a customized routine. 

It is important as it improves endurance due to lesser resting periods. It also aids in muscle gain and is ideal for those looking at developing a toned body. 

The five big reasons why this is important are as follows:

1. It helps combine strength training and cardio: The most productive workouts involve using maximum potential. With the combination of weight training and increased cardiovascular exercise, your entire body to its takes one of the best routines for weight loss and overall fitness. While the fat burn is happening, muscle gain happens through resistance training.

2. Workouts can be short but still extremely effective: The best part about circuit training is that you don’t need a lot of time as most circuit training workouts can be completed in 25-30 minutes.

3. Increases metabolism. Circuit training raises the metabolism as the heart rate is continuously up during the entire workout. This, in turn, enables the body to burn more calories even when not at the gym.

4 Beats exercise boredom.

5. See actual results faster: Muscle definition and weight loss happen faster. This is because of changing exercises and accelerated heart rate for the duration of the workout.

Advantages of Circuit Training

1. It burns calories rapidly.

2 It reduces the risk of injuries.

3. It is time-efficient.

4. Increases lean muscle mass and helps improve the tone of the body.

5. It can be done with many people at the same time, rotating stations.

6. It is very easy to learn and needs less supervision.

7. It does not need a lot of equipment.

8. It can be done both indoors as well as outdoors.

Disadvantages of Circuit Training

1. Needs a lot of space and planning takes time and effort.

2. It may not be suitable for increasing muscle strength and power.

3. Initially very tiring, especially for beginners.

4. Does not contribute to long-term endurance needs.

Training in sports chapter 10 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

1.Tension creates in muscles but there is no movement is

a. Isokinetic exercises

b. Isotonic exercises

c. Isometric exercises

d. Isoletic exercises

2. Range of movement of joint is

a. Strength

b. Flexibility

c. Speed

d. Endurance

3. Which is not a training method of endurance training?

a. Interval training method

b. Continuous training method

c. Acceleration method

d. Fartlek training method

4. Which one is not a type of speed?

a. Balance Ability

b. Reaction ability

c. Locomotor ability

d. Acceleration ability

5. Ability to overcome resistance with speed is

a. Maximum Strength

b. Strength endurance

c. Explosive Strength

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions

1. What is strength? What are the different types of strength?

Ans. Strength is the capacity to withstand force or pressure. It refers to muscular strength. Types of strength are as follows

(i) Maximum Strength. It refers to the greatest force that is possible in a single maximum muscle contraction or one single effort.

(ii) Explosive Strength. It refers to the ability to apply strength along with high speed.

(iii) Strength Endurance. It refers to the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance under fatigue.

2. Differentiate between isometric and isotonic exercises.    (CBSE 2020, 2016)

Ans. The difference between Isometric and Isotonic are as follows:

Isometric ExercisesIsotonic Exercises
An isometric exercise occurs when there is tension on a muscle without any movementIsotonic exercises involve when there is tension on a controlled movements of muscle
Less or no equipment required to perform them.Sometimes equipment is required. 
It needs less timeThe time period is more in comparison.

3. List the advantages and disadvantages of Isometric exercises.

Ans. Advantages of Isometric exercises are as follows:

  • In isometric exercises, less or no equipment is required as immovable objects are used. 
  • Less time is required to perform whereas effects are more.
  • Isometric strength training exercises develop a high level of static strength and maximal strength, thus, effective for total muscular strength.
  • These exercises can be performed during a warming-up session.

Disadvantages of Isometric exercises are as follows:

  • Isometric exercise raises the blood pressure.
  • It develops static strength whereas in most of the games and sports dynamic strength is required. 
  • There is less variety of isometric exercises.

4. Isometric exercises are a very important method for developing physical fitness. 

Describe what you understand about them.

Ans. Isometric exercises are a type of muscle workout. In this, you perform isometric muscle contraction. It means that the muscle contraction occurs when your muscle exerts force without changing its length, i.e. without movement. 

In other words, when you do an isometric muscle  contraction, your joint doesn’t move. Unlike concentric (when the muscle shortens as it works) and eccentric (when the muscle Lengthens when it works) types of contractions, isometric muscle contraction neither lengthens or shortens the muscle fibers but strengthens them.

5, What is endurance? Which method will you suggest to develop endurance?

Ans. Endurance is the ability to do sports movements with the desired quality and speed under the conditions of fatigue. 

The Fartlek training method is essential to develop endurance. Fartlek is a form of road running in which the runner usually changes the pace significantly dui-ing the run.

The duration of this training lasts for 45 minutes or more. It is followed by walking to sprinting and from rigorous exercises to recovery phases. It is suited to improve cardiovascular endurance.

6. Explain interval training method.     (All India 2017)

Or What is endurance? Explain the various methods of its development.

Ans. Endurance is the ability to do sports movements of the desired quality and speed under conditions of fatigue.

The methods to develop endurance are as follows

(i) Continuous Training Method. This method was developed by Dr Van Aaken. Continuous training involves continuous running or exercise without rest or pause. For example, long distance running at a stretch.

(ii) Interval Training Method. This method enhances speed and endurance ability. In this method, the exercises are follmvecl by a periocl of rest, also known    as recovery.

7. What is Fartlek training?

Or What does the term Fartlek mean and who developed this training method? (All India 2017)

Ans. Fartlek is a Swedish term which means ‘speed play’ and has been used by distance runners for years. It improves individual speed and endurance. It is a form of road running or cross country running in which the runner usually changes the pace significantly during the run.

This method was introduced by O Astrand and Costa Halner. It is a combination of slow and fast running on different terrains, covering hills etc.

8. Explain the advantages of Fartlek training.

Ans. Advantages of Fartlek training are as follows:

  • It is good for increasing strength and cardiorespiratory endurance.
  • Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.
  • It does not require any equipment and can be organized easily.
  • This training method is not rigid; it is flexible in nature. e It improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs.

9. Define speed and explain any one method to develop it. (CBSE 2020)

Or Define speed. Explain the methods of speed development.    (Delhi 2016, 15)

Ans. It is the ability to cover distance in minimum possible time. It is also the quickness of movement of body parts such as fast skipping, jumping, etc.

Speed Developing Methods

(i) Acceleration Run. It is usually used to develop speed indirectly by improving explosive strength, technique, flexibility and movement frequency.

Before acceleration runs, proper warm up must be done. After every acceleration run, there should be a proper interval so that the athlete may start the next run without any fatigue.

(ii) Pace Races. Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed or with uniform speed.

It develops explosive strength and endurance as the athletes run long distances without fatigue. Repetitions can be fixed according to the standard of the athletes.

10. Explain the physiological factors determining speed.

Or Write in brief about any three physiological factors determining speed. (Delhi 2016, 14)

Or Explain the types of speed.    (All India 2012)

Ans. The physiological factors determining speed are as follows

(i) Reaction Speed. It is the ability to respond to a given stimulus as quickly as possible, like good speed in sprints, speed in fielding, chasing the ball etc.

(ii) Movement Speed. It is the ability to do a single movement in the minimum time like jumping, throwing, kicking, boxing etc.

(iii) Acceleration Speed. It is the ability to achieve maximum speed in the shortest possible time. This form of speed depends upon explosive strength, frequency of movement and technique. This ability is important in swimming, hockey, football, gymnastics etc.

11.  What is flexibility? Explain its types

Ans. Flexibility is the ability of a joint to perform action through a range of movements. It is needed to perform everyday activities with relative ease. Flexibility tends to deteriorate with age.

Flexibility is of two types. These are as follows

(i) Active. It is the ability to perform movement with greater range without using external help i.e. with the help of muscular force e.g. stretching exercises using push-ups etc.

(ii) Passive. It is the ability to perform movement with greater range using external help i.e. with the help of an equipment or a partner.

12. Briefly explain any three coordinative abilities. (All India 2016 )

Ans. The different types of coordinative abilities are as follows

(i) Differentiation Ability. It is the ability to achieve a high level of fine tuning or harmony of individual movement phases and body part movements.

(ii) Orientation Ability. It is the ability to determine and change the position and movements of the body in different types of situations. For example, in gymnastics, the position and movement of head and eyes is important for orientation.

(iii) Coupling Ability. It is the ability to coordinate body part movements (e.g. movements of hand, feet, trunk etc) with one another.

Coupling ability is especially important in sports in which movements with a high degree of difficulty have to be done e.g. gymnastics, team games etc.

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 Long Answer (LA) Type Questions

1. Write in detail about strength improving methods Isometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic.    (CBSE 2019)

Ans. There are three different methods of training to develop or improve strength. These are discussed as follows:

(i) Isometric Exercises. These exercises were introduced by Hettinger and Muller in 1953. This happens when there is a tension on a muscle but no movement is made, causing the length of the muscle to remain the same.

Therefore, one cannot see any external movement but a muscle is stretched as a lot of pressure is exerted on it.

These exercises are very helpful in sports like archery, yoga, judo, weightlifting etc. Examples of these exercises are pressing or pushing a wall, lifting a very heavy weight, pulling the rope in tug-of-war etc.

(ii) Isotonic Exercises. These exercises were developed by De Loone in 1954. Here, external movement in the muscles can be seen clearly.

When the muscles contract repeatedly, then they develop strength and endurance. The muscles or group of muscles changes in size, i.e. shortens and lengthens during action.

Isotonic exercises are of two types:

Concentric. It means upward movement of the muscles like lifting dumbbells, throwing a wall, etc. It shortens the muscles as you overcome the force of a weight.

Eccentric. It means downward movement of the muscles like lowering the dumbbells down. It lengthens the muscles while being opposed by the force of a weight.

(iii) Isokinetic Exercises. These exercises were developed by Perrine in 1968. Isokinetic exercise refers to the exercises that are based on the movement of the muscles throughout the range of the joint with a constant speed.

Examples of isokinetic exercises are pedaling in cycling and arm stroke in swimming.

2. In the strength training exercise group, explain the benefits and drawbacks of Isotonic exercises. Write down the methods to develop endurance

Ans. Advantages of Isotonic exercises are as follows:

  • It develops dynamic strength. This is mostly required for games and sports.
  • These exercises develop strength and endurance and both can be developed together.
  • Isotonic exercises improve flexibility, thus, muscles have more contractility.
  • These exercises are used for developing explosive strength along with strength endurance

Disadvantages of Isotonic exercises are as follows: 

  • Changes of stress and strain injuries.
  • Sometimes equipment is required to perform. 

The methods to develop endurance are

(i) Continuous Training Method. This method was developed by Dr Van Aaken. Continuous training involves continuous running actively or exercise without rest or pause. For example, long distance running at a stretch.

(ii) Interval Training Method. This method enhances speed and endurance ability. In this method, the exercises are followed by a period of rest, also known as recovery.

3. Define Speed. What are the methods for improving speed?

Ans. Speed is the rate of motion or the rate of change of position. It is expressed as distance moved per unit of time. Speed is defined as the ability and capacity of an individual to perform similar movements consecutively at the fastest rate. For example, short distance races like 100 meters and 200 meters.

Methods for improving speed are as follows:

(i) Acceleration Runs. It is the ability to increase speed from jogging to running and finally sprinting. It depends on explosive strength, frequency of movement and technique. To utter maximum speed from a stationary position, it should be practised after learning the proper technique for it  

(ii) Pace Run. A competitive pace race is a timed race in which the objective is not to finish in the least time, but to finish within the prescribed time and in the best physical condition.

In some races, the prescribed time is narrowly defined and the winner is the competitor who finishes closest to the prescribed time. Complete recovery; is ensured between two repetitions. 

This implies running the whole distance of a race at an almost constant speed.

4. Define flexibility and explain the methods of flexibility development. (Delhi 2015)

Ans. Flexibility is the ability of a joint to perform action through a range of movements. It is needed to perform everyday activities with relative ease. Flexibility tends to deteriorate with age. The methods of flexibility development are as follows

(i) Dynamic Stretching. It refers to stretching that involves putting muscular effort along with movement at the same time. Walking lungs, kicking action, moving the arm in circular motion are examples of dynamic stretching.

(ii) Static Active Stretching. Here the muscles are stretched without moving the limbs and the limbs are held to the end position for 30 seconds. Standing on one leg and holding the other leg directly in front for 20-30 seconds is static active stretching.

(iii) Static Passive Stretching. This also refers to stretching of muscles without moving the limbs. However, an external force is applied to hold the stretch in position.

The external force can be some other part of your body like hands to hold the stretch, an assistance or an equipment.

(iv) Ballistic Stretching. It uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion.

This is stretching or warming up, by bouncing into a stretched position, using the stretched muscles as a spring which pulls you out of the stretch position. This type of stretching can lead to injury, if the body is not warmed up.

5. Discuss in detail the different types of coordinative ability.    (CBSE 2020)

Or What do you understand by coordinative ability? Discuss about different types of coordinative abilities.    (CBSE 2019)

Ans. The term ‘coordinate ability’ replaced the term ‘agility’  The term ‘agility’ was discarded as it was not clearly defined and there was no unanimity in its meaning. Coordinative ability mainly depends on the central nervous system. It is the ability to perform smooth and accurate movements involving different parts of the body.

The different types of coordinative abilities arc as Follows

(i) Differentiation ability It is the ability to achieve a high level ol’ fine tuning or harmony of individual tnovenu•nt phases and body part Investments.

(ii) Orientation Ability It is the ability to cleternoine and clvange the position and movements of’ body in different types or situations.

(iii) Coupling Ability. It is the ability to coordinate body parts movements (e.g. movements of hands, feet, ‘trunk, etc.) with one another. It is especially important in sports in which fast movements have to be done. For example, gymnastics, team games, etc.

(iv) Reaction Ability. It is the ability to react quickly and effectively to a signal.

(v) Balance Ability. It is the ability of a sportsperson to maintain equilibrium of the body both in static and dynamic conditions.

(vi) Adaptation Ability. It is the ability to adjust or completely change the movement according to the changing situation. It depends on the speed and accuracy with which a situation is adapted. The perfection of this ability is achieved through the mastery of the skills.


Case Based Questions

1. Sunita, a student of class VIIl, was identified as a strong girl both physically and mentally. She is being encouraged by her teacher to take up wrestling as a proffesional sport and start training. 

Sunita is also interested in the sport as she has been watching the sport on the TV and she is highly impressed by the Indian women wrestlers. 

She expresses her interest to her family that she wants to learn boxing but her brothers made fun of her and ridiculed her. Her father, seeing her interest, sent her to a professional coach to learn that sport properly.

(i) What is maximum strength?

Ans. Maximum strength refers to the greatest force that is possible in one single effort, It is basically the ability of muscles to overcome maximum resistance. It is used in weightlifting, shot put, hammer throw etc.

(ii) Which type of training method should be used by Sunita to develop strength?

Ans. Isometric training methods should be developed as Sunita needs static strength. Her muscles should act against resistance from the opponent player.

2. Ravi has the aim of joining any of the uniform services like police, army, air force etc. For this, he is required to develop endurance. Based on this, answer the following questions

(i) Which factors are essential to note down in an interval training method?

Ans. The factors that are essential to note down are distance of exercise, speed, duration of work and rest, frequency and heart rate.

(ii) What is the difference between continuous and interval training methods?

Ans. Continuous involves continuous running activity or exercise without rest. Interval involves exercises followed by a period of rest.

3. Raghu was a good thrower. When he joined a new training camp, he observed some athletes were running on uneven surfaces like bushes, rocks, pits etc. He was in a dilemma. Then the coach explained about that training in detail.

(i) What is the procedure of Fartlek training?

Ans. It begins with proper warm up, then aerobic walking to aerobic sprinting, climbing uphill followed by recovery phase and finally cooling down.

(ii) How Fartlek training can help Raghu to become an athlete?

Ans. Fartlek training method provides vigorous activities,  tough training which develops endurance needed by the athletes.

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Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Physical Education notes of chapter 10 Training in sports. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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