Yoga | Class 11 Physical Education Chapter 3 Notes 2024

Last updated on July 14th, 2024 at 06:06 pm


Meaning and Importance of Yoga


The term Yoga comes from the Sanskrit word ‘Yuj’, meaning ‘union’ or ‘to join’. It is the union of Atma (soul) and Paramatma (super controller).

Yoga brings physical harmony and mental balance. It is the combination of physical asanas, meditation, and breathing techniques to strengthen the muscles and relieve from stress.

The main purpose of Yoga is to provide a sound body and a sound mind. The aim of Yoga is ‘self-identification’ and ‘self-perfection’ which comes through ‘self-purification and self-realization’.


  • Yoga improves the efficiency of the cardiovascular system
  • Organs get strengthened 
  • It prevents premature aging
  • It helps to maintain good posture
  • Yoga Improves brain function
  • It lowers stress levels
  • Yoga increases flexibility
  • Yoga lowers blood pressure
  • Gives relief from stress and anxiety
  • It can relieve chronic back pain
  • It lowers blood sugar level 
  • It improves the sense of balance
  • It makes the bones stronger
  • Helps to maintain a healthy weight
  • Lowers risk of many diseases

Introduction To Ashtanga Yoga

Elements of Yoga

In Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, the eightfold path is called ashtanga, which means “eight limbs  (ashta = eight, anga = limb). These eight steps are a guideline on how to live a good life. 

The focus is on moral and ethical conduct and self-discipline. These are designed to improve health and benefit in spiritual areas of our lives. 

The first four stages of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga concentrate on refining our personalities, gaining mastery over the body, and developing an energetic awareness of ourselves, to prepare for the second half of this process which deals with the senses, the mind, and attaining a higher state of consciousness.  


Eight Elements of Yoga

Eight elements to attain the highest purification of body and mind are as follows:

Yama (abstinence)

There are many morality guidelines for good behavior in society, which must be followed by everyone. These elements are the basic principles for the benefit of society.

These principles are: 

  • Ahimsa (Non-Harming)
  • Satya (Truthfulness )
  • Asteya ( Non-Stealing )
  • Brahmacharya (Moderating the Senses )
  • Aparigraha (Non-Possessiveness )

Niyam (observances)

Niyam are personal observances or self-purification by discipline. It makes the individual healthy.

  • Saucha (Cleanliness)
  • Santosh (Contentment)
  • Tapa (Austerity)
  • Swadhyaya (Study of good literature)
  • Ishwar Paridhana (Surrender to God)

Asanas (yoga postures)

Asanas are slow stretching activities performed to improve the whole body’s fitness. It can be done in all three positions viz. Standing, sitting, and lying.

Pranayama (breathing control)

Pranayama is a systematic and rhythmic control of breathing, performed to improve the internal functioning of the whole body. 

Pranayam is based upon Purak (Inhale) Rechak (Exhale) and Kumbhak (holding breath) 

Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses)

Pratyahara is the conscious withdrawal of energy from the senses. It is performed to improve intellectual capability. It develops inner mental strength by controlling sense organs 

Dharana (concentration)

Dharana is fixing the attention on a single object for a long time to improve concentration. This mental fixation should be uninterrupted and without any kind of cognitive activity.

Dhyana (meditation)

Dhayana is the process of controlling the mind through meditation. It develops a high level of concentration.

Samadhi (absorption)

Samadhi is the state of super-consciousness where dhayana reaches its final stage. It is also the state of union with God, merging consciousness and salvation

Yogic Kriyas are cleansing techniques that cleanse various internal organs of the body. They are also called shat kriyas or Shatkarmas because they are six in number.

Shuddhi Kriya (Shatkanna): Shatkarmas cleanse and activate all the body’s vital organs, especially the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems. 

They are preventive as well as curative in nature. One’s capacity to digest, taste, work, think, and feel gets enhanced. These kriyas prepare the body for Yoga practices such as asanas, pranayama, and meditation by eliminating physical distractions, discomfort, and fatigue. 

Yoga Kriyas

There are six major cleaning processes in Yoga:

1. Kapalbhati

2. Neti (upper nasal track)

3. Trataka (eye exercises)

4. Nauli (abdominal muscle and viscera)

5. Dhouti (cleansing the intestine)

6. Vasti (cleaning of the rectum)


It is designed to stimulate the brain cells and purify the brain. ‘Kapalbhati’ comes from the word ‘Kapal’ (forehead) and ‘Bhati’ which means ‘to shiné’.


  • Sit in any meditative posture.
  • Close the eyes and relax the whole body.
  • Inhale deeply through both nostrils and expand the chest.
  • Exhale breath with forceful contractions of the abdominal muscles and relax.
  • Continue active/forceful exhalation and passive inhalation.


  • Kapalbhati generates heat in the body, dissolving toxins and other waste matter.
  • It improves the functioning of the kidneys and liver.
  • It removes stress from the eyes and erases dark circles.
  • It enhances blood circulation and digestion.
  • It increases metabolic rate, thus aiding weight loss.
  • It stimulates abdominal organs and is thus helpful for diabetic patients.
  • It rejuvenates the brain and energizes nerves.
  • The process has a calming effect and uplifts the mind.
  • It gives a sense of balance and sensibility and makes one feel pure and clutter-free.
  • It eliminates acidity and gas-related problems. Kapalbhati strengthens the lungs.
  • It improves memory and concentration.
  • It clears and activates the chakras in the body.
  • It helps in curing asthma, sinusitis, and hair loss.
  • It keeps depression at bay and fills one with positivity.

Neti Kriyas

Neti Kriya is a type of Yogic nasal-cleansing exercise. Neti Kriya is designed to purify the nasal passages and bathe the sinuses. 

They are said to remove toxins and anything blocking the flow of prana or energy in the body. Neti is a Sanskrit term derived from the roots na and ti, which together translate as “not so”.

Types of Neti

Jala neti, which is practiced using a neti pot filled with saline solution to cleanse the nasal passages. In this technique, the head is tilted to the side and then salt water is poured into one nostril and exits through the other nostril. 

Sutra neti, a thread is passed through the nostrils and out of the mouth. The yogi then holds both ends of the string, pulling it back and forth to cleanse the nose. The thread should be rolled cotton and is often dipped in beeswax for easier threading. 

A soft rubber catheter may also be used. Sutra neti is said to be a more effective cleansing technique than jala neti.

Dugdha neti is similar to jala neti in that a neti pot is used to cleanse the nasal passageways with warm saline solution, except that warm milk is used instead. 

Ghrita neti is similar to jala neti in which a neti pot is filled with warm ghee instead. It is done using a neti pot, or a few drops of warm ghee can simply be sniffed into each nostril at a time to coat and line the nasal passageways.


Trataka, a technique used in a meditation practice, is one of the six purification techniques, called shatkarmas, of Hatha Yoga. 

Trataka is a Sanskrit word, which means ‘to look’ or ‘to gaze,’ As such’ this meditation technique involves staring at a single point of focus. 

This is typically the flame of a candle, but other objects that may be used include a dot on the wall, an object of worship, a deity, flower, mountain, the rising sun or moon. However, a flame is believed to work better.

Meditating in this way is believed to energize the (third eye) chakra, which is associated with intuition and wisdom, as well as psychic abilities. 


  • Light a candle and sit at least one meter away from it with the flame at eye level.
  • Focus your gaze on the flame and keep it there without blinking for as long as possible.
  • As thoughts arise, acknowledge them, then return to focus on the flame.
  • When the eyes start to water and tears flow, close the eyes and focus on the after-glow of the flame, bringing awareness to the third eye point.
  • Meditate here until ready to come out of the practice.

Trataka is said to be most effective when practiced consistently at sunrise or midday. Its effects can be enhanced.

Benefits of Trataka include:

• Strengthens eye muscles

• Purifies the eyes

• Treats eye disorders

• Relieves insomnia

• Aids in treating depression over concentration

• Calms the mind

• Promotes emotional stability

• Boosts willpower

• Develops intuition


Nauli is one of the Shatkarmas in Yogic Kriyas, which is an integral part of Hatha Yoga. This kriya uses the abdominal muscles to massage the organs in the abdomen and stomach region. 

It has Immense health benefits, but is not easy to do, especially at the beginning. This is an exercise that Involves a rolling movement of the abdominal muscles.

Nauli kriya is typically practiced on an empty stomach and from a standing position. Nauli kriya  begins with a complete breath out, then the abdomen is brought in, contracting the central muscles

Nauli kriya is thought to relieve constipation and digestive issues. Those who suffer from heart disease, high blood pressure, hernia, ulcers, or gastrointestinal problems should not practice this

The best time to practice is early morning after a bowel movement.


1. First stand with your legs apart and then bend the knees. While bending the knees, use the

2. Exhale forcefully making a hissing sound, just like in Kapalbhati.

3. Try to contract the belly inward and then upward. This is the base position for performing Nauli

4. Stop the breath and isolate the abdominal muscles (Left rectus muscles for Vama Nauli, right ones for Dakshina Nauli, and middle ones for Madhya Nauli).

5. Then try and hold the position for a few seconds.

6. Breathe in and release the kriya pose. Come back to a comfortable standing position.


  • Massage of internal organs keeps them healthy.
  • Strengthens stomach muscles and helps improve digestion capability.
  • Strengthens the functioning of vital organs.


This is for the purification of the esophagus and stomach. This technique is also known as Gaj Karn. Gaj means elephant. When an elephant experiences nausea’ it reaches its trunk deep into its gullet

Dhouti is a method of washing up the entire tract starting from the mouth to the digestive path at the beginning of the small intestines, that is the mouth’s stomach. etc. 

One can wash one’s mouth, but in the daily routine, one cannot wash the Esophagus or the stomach. The impurities residing there are carried along with the food particles and are mixed in some proportion with the blood. 

There are two kinds:

i. Jala Dhauti or Kunjala Kriya


Mix two liters of warm water (40°) with 1 teaspoon of salt. Stand upright and drink the water rapidly glass by glass. Bend forward slightly, press the left hand into the lower abdomen and extend the index and middle fingers of the right hand partially down the throat. 

Simultaneously, press the tongue down so that nausea is induced. The entire quantity of the water comes out again in half a minute.

This can be repeated once or twice each week and is best performed in the morning on an empty stomach.


Has a beneficial influence on high acidity, allergies, and asthma. Eliminates halitosis (bad breath).


Do not practice this exercise with high blood pressure or glaucoma.

ii. Vastra Dhauti


This stomach purification technique requires the use of a strip of cotton, 3 meters in length and 10 centimeters wide. First-time practice of this technique must be performed only with the guidance of a “Yoga in Daily Life” teacher.


Like Dhauti this technique purifies the stomach and helps relieve high acidity. It purifies the upper respiratory tract, and thereby eases asthma, and dust and pollen allergies.


Medicated oil or ghee and herbal decoction are given as an enema to clean the colon and increase the muscle tone. After this, the previously lubricated nozzle is pushed into the rectum for about 4 to 6 inches so as to make the oil or decoction enter and move through the colon. 

The general idea is to clean from the inside. Ayurveda has favored this method of treatment for various disorders.

Pranayama And Its Types

It is the fourth stage of Yoga. Pranayam is a systematic breathing activity in which inhalation (purak), exhalation (rechak) holding of breath (kumbhak) are controlled. 

This systematic rhythmic control of breathing provides deep effects on individual health. It develops inner strength and cures many health ailments.

Anulom-Vilom Pranayam

It is an alternate breathing technique. In this process close your right nostril with the thumb, breathe in from the left nostril, then close the left nostril and breathe out from the right nostril. Repeat from another side.

Kapalbhati Pranayam

In Kapalbhati pranayam forceful exhalation is performed where inhalation happens automatically. Exhalation is done from the nose with pressure while the stomach is vibrated in and out.

Bhramari Pranayama

In this pranayama, exhalation is done with a humming sound from the throat with closed ears with thumbs.

Sitli Pranayam

It is a forceful exhalation from the mouth with the tongue rolled. It provides a cold feeling to the body.

  • Cultural Asana: For overall body fitness
  • Meditative and Relaxative Asana: For improving mental activities
  • Therapeutic Asana: For curing a various health problem

Active Lifestyle and Stress Management through Yoga

Living an active lifestyle and effectively managing stress are essential aspects of maintaining overall well-being. Yoga, an ancient practice that originated in India, offers a holistic approach to achieving both physical and mental balance. In this note, we’ll explore the benefits of incorporating yoga into your daily routine for an active and stress-free life.

Active Lifestyle:

An active lifestyle involves engaging in regular physical activities that keep your body in motion. Whether it’s walking, jogging, cycling, or participating in sports, staying active promotes cardiovascular health, strengthens muscles, and improves flexibility. 

By including yoga in your routine, you can enhance your overall physical fitness as it combines various postures, stretches, and breathing exercises that target different muscle groups.

Stress Management:

In today’s fast-paced world, stress has become a common factor that affects our mental and emotional well-being. Managing stress is crucial for maintaining a healthy life. 

Yoga provides an effective means of stress relief through its focus on mindfulness and relaxation techniques. By practicing yoga regularly, you can learn to be present in the moment, let go of worries, and reduce anxiety.

Mind-Body Connection:

Yoga emphasizes the mind-body connection, acknowledging that our mental state significantly influences our physical health and vice versa. 

By practicing yoga, you can cultivate self-awareness, develop a positive outlook, and learn to listen to your body’s needs. This awareness can guide you to make healthier lifestyle choices, leading to improved overall wellness.

Breathing Techniques:

One of the fundamental aspects of yoga is its emphasis on breath control. Deep breathing exercises, also known as pranayama, help calm the mind and reduce stress. 

By incorporating these techniques into your daily routine, you can enhance your ability to cope with stressful situations and improve your emotional resilience.

Flexibility and Strength:

Yoga postures, or asanas, involve a combination of stretching and strengthening exercises. Regular practice can increase your flexibility, making your body more agile and less prone to injuries. 

Moreover, some yoga poses require significant muscle engagement, leading to improved strength and endurance over time.

Better Sleep:

Sleep is essential for the body’s recovery and rejuvenation. However, stress and a sedentary lifestyle can negatively impact sleep quality. 

Practicing yoga before bedtime can help you relax, release tension, and promote better sleep patterns, allowing you to wake up feeling refreshed and energized.


Asanas are performed in standing, sitting and lying (supine and prone) position. The warming up in Yoga is performed with Surya Namaskar. 

Asanas are the third step of yoga in which slow stretching activities are performed, by holding body postures which brings stability of body and poised mind.  


Meditation is a process that controls the mind and its activities. It is a very powerful process as it stabilizes the mind in a proper direction.

In meditation, we focus our mind on a particular object, thought, or activity and pay attention to the breath.



It is a simple sitting posture with crossed legs, hands over the knee, and back straight


  • Improves concentration
  • Improves leg Strength
  • Cures Arthritis, and Knock Knee


It is a standing posture on toes, arms straight up and joined palms. 


  • Develop leg muscles
  • Increase height in children
  • Relieve ankle and leg pain
  • Improves concentration


It is a sitting posture with crossed legs, feet touching opposite hips, hands on the knees, and back straight.


  • Improve concentration
  • Improve leg strength
  • Cures Arthritis, Sciatica, and Knock Knee

Shashank Asana

Sit in the kneeling position while keeping the hips on the heels, toes pointing outside and big toes touching each other at the back. Bend the body at the front while hands and head touch the floor at the front.


  • Improves concentration
  • Improves leg strength and flexibility.
  • Cures Arthritis, Knock Knee


Lie down flat, lift your chest and feet off the ground up to 10 inches, and stretch your arms towards your feet. Feel the tension in your stomach area, the weight of your body on the buttocks.


  • It strengthens the arms, thighs and shoulders, neck muscles.
  • It improves the function of organs 
  • It helps in regulating blood flow

Vriksh asana

Stand straight, feets together, bend your right knee, place your right sole on your left thigh, gently raise your arms over your head and bring them together. Look straight 


  • It strengthens the spine 
  • It improves neuromuscular coordination.
  • It tones the leg muscles 
  • It strengthens the knees 

Garud Asana

Stand straight, bend your right knee and left foot cross over the right knee. Cross the right arm over the left arm and bend your elbows, palms facing each other


  • It stretches the thighs, shoulders and upper back.
  • It improves balance.
  • Strengthens the calves.
  • Makes the hip flexible

Relaxation Techniques for improving concentration

Yog Nidra

Yog Nidra is a relaxation techniques for relaxing body and improving concentration.


  • Lie down straight on your back 
  • Close your eyes. 
  • Take a few relaxed and slow deep breaths
  • Take your attention to your right foot for a few seconds, while relaxing your foot. 
  • Next move your attention to the right knee, right thigh, and hip. 
  • Repeat this same process for the left leg.
  • Take your attention to all parts of the upper body: stomach, navel region, and chest.
  • Now pay attention to the right shoulder, right arm, palms, and fingers. 
  • Repeat this same process on the left shoulder, left arm
  • Finally throat, face, and top of the head.
  • Now take a deep breath and observe the sensations in your body. 
  • Relax in this state for a few minutes.
  • Slowly sit up and open your eyes.


  • It improves concentration
  • It cools down the body after yoga postures
  • It activates the nervous system to absorb the effects of yoga asanas

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are the elements of Yoga?

Answer: Yoga has eight elements to attain the purification of body and mind to achieve the union of Atma and Paramatma.
Yama, Niyam, Asana, Pranayam, Pratyahara, Darana, Dyan and Samadhi 

Q2. What is the main purpose of Yoga?

Answer: The main purpose of Yoga is to provide a sound body and a sound mind. The aim of Yoga is ‘self-identification’ and ‘self-perfection’ which comes through ‘self-purification and self-realization’.

Q3. What is Astanga Yoga?

Ans. In Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, the eightfold path is called ashtanga, which literally means “eight limbs  (ashta = eight, anga = limb). These eight steps are a guideline on how to live a good life. 

Q4. What do you mean by Kriyas?

Ans. Yogic Kriyas are cleansing techniques that cleanse various internal organs of the body. They are also called shat kriyas or shatkarmas because they are six in number.

Yoga chapter 3 CBSE, class 11 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 11 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 11 Physical Education notes of chapter 3 Yoga. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 11 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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