CBSE Chemistry Class 12 Syllabus

Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 1: Solid State      

Classification of solids based on different binding forces:

  • Molecular
  • Ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).
  • Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices
  • Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids
  • Packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects
  • Electrical and magnetic properties.
  • Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators
  • n and p type semiconductors. 

Unit II: Solutions

  • Types of solutions
  • Expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids
  • Solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult’s law, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure
  • Elevation  of  boiling  point,  depression  of  freezing  point, 
  • Osmotic  pressure
  • Determination  of molecular masses using colligative properties
  • Abnormal molecular mass
  • Van’t Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

  • Redox reactions
  • EMF of a cell
  • Standard electrode potential
  • Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells
  • Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell
  • Conductance in electrolytic solutions,   specific   and   molar   conductivity  
  • Variations   of   conductivity   with   concentration
  • Kohlrausch’s Law
  • Electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea)
  • Dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics   

  • Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous)
  • Factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst
  • Order and molecularity of a reaction
  • Rate law and specific rate constant
  • Integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions)
  • Concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
  • Activation energy, Arrhenius equation. 

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption
  • Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis: homogenous and heterogenous
  • Activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state
  • Distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension
  • Lyophilic,  lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids
  • Properties of colloids
  • Tyndall effect
  • Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation
  • Emulsion – types of emulsions

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of of Elements  

  • Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic method and refining
  • Occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. 

Unit VII:p-Block Elements

  • Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties
  • Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); 
  • Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and  properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only). 
  • Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only). 
  • Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties
  • Compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only). 
  • Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. 

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.    
  • Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.  
  • Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

  • Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.
  • Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.

  • Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.    
  • Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).    
  • Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. 

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 

  • Alcohols:  Nomenclature, methods of  preparation, physical  and chemical  properties  (of  primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.   
  • Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.   
  • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses. 

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids    

  • Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.   
  • Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. 

Unit XIII: Amines     

  • Amines:  Nomenclature,  classification,  structure,  methods  of  preparation,  physical  and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.  
  • Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.   
  • Proteins -Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure.   
  • Vitamins – Classification and functions.  
  • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers

  • Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
  • Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life 

  • Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.   
  • Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.  
  • Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Click here: for Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes

Practical Syllabus:

Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.

Surface Chemistry

  • Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol 

Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum 

Lyophobic sol – aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenious sulphide.

  • Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
  • Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils. 

Chemical Kinetics

  • Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
  • Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
  1. Reaction  of  Iodide  ions  with  Hydrogen  Peroxide  at  room  temperature  using  different concentrations of Iodide ions.
  2. Reaction  between  Potassium  Iodate,  (KIO3)  and  Sodium  Sulphite:  (Na2SO3)  using  starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).  


Any one of the following experiments

  • Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
  • Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
  • Determination  of  enthalpy  change  during  interaction  (Hydrogen  bond  formation)  between Acetone and Chloroform. 


Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or

ZnSO4) at room temperature.


  • Separation of  pigments  from extracts of leaves  and flowers  by  paper  chromatography  and determination of Rf values.
  • Separation  of  constituents  present  in  an  inorganic  mixture  containing  two  cations  only

(constituents having large differences in Rf values to be provided). 

Preparation of Inorganic Compounds

Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate. 

Preparation of Organic Compounds

Preparation of any one of the following compounds

  • Acetanilide
  • Di -benzalAcetone
  • p-Nitroacetanilide
  • Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Aniline Dye. 

Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds: 

Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given foodstuffs.

Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4  solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:

  • Oxalic acid,
  • Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate

(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

Qualitative analysis

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.

  • Cation : Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4
  • Anions: (CO3)2-, S2-, (SO3)2-, (NO2)-, (SO4)2-, Cℓ-, Br-, I-, PO3- , (C2O4)2-, CH3COO-,NO3

  (Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

Project Work

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources 

Few suggested Projects. 

? Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.

? Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.

? Preparation  of  soyabean  milk  and  its  comparison  with  the  natural  milk  with  respect  to  curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.

? Study  of  the  effect  of  Potassium  Bisulphate  as  food  preservative  under  various  conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.)

? Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.

? Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.

? Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).

? Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.

Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 

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