Unit 1: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces:
Unit II: Solutions
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of of Elements
Unit VII:p-Block Elements
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Unit XIII: Amines
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Unit XV: Polymers
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
- Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol – aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenious sulphide.
- Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
- Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.
- Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
- Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
- Reaction of Iodide ions with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentrations of Iodide ions.
- Reaction between Potassium Iodate, (KIO3) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
Any one of the following experiments
- Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
- Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
- Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or
ZnSO4) at room temperature.
- Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
- Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only
(constituents having large differences in Rf values to be provided).
Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any one of the following compounds
- Di -benzalAcetone
- Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Aniline Dye.
Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.
Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given foodstuffs.
Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
- Oxalic acid,
- Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
- Cation : Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Aℓ3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4
- Anions: (CO3)2-, S2-, (SO3)2-, (NO2)-, (SO4)2-, Cℓ-, Br-, I-, PO3- , (C2O4)2-, CH3COO-,NO3
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources
Few suggested Projects.
? Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
? Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
? Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
? Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.)
? Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
? Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.
? Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
? Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.