[Latest] ISC Cl. 12 PE Ch. 2 | Sports Training Methods

Sports Training method

Meaning And Importance Of Sports Training

According to Mathew, “Sports training is the basic form of preparation of a sportsman”.

According to Martin, “It is a planned and controlled process of achieving goals in which the changes of motor performance and behavior are made through measures of content, methods and organization”.

The word “training” means to give practical and theoretical knowledge.

Training is of various types or means to enhance sports performance. In other words, it is a long term processes based on scientific and systematic ways to enhance sports performance. 

It is based on various aspects in its process like specific individual care, improving specific fitness, scientific ways, psychological feedback, technical help, good machines and apparatus, considering climate, diet, safety means, etc. 

It helps to develop basic skills, advanced skills, techniques, tactics, strategies, emotional stability during competition, motivational forces, etc. In simple words, we can say that these are the methods to improve general and specific performance in games and sports. 

Training gives us knowledge (practical and theoretical) regarding performance and also guides us how to improve further through different ways. 

Knowledge of training is good for coaches as well as important for players. Training method consists of training periods which are split into quarterly, half yearly, annually or bi-annually which are result-based processes. 

Training is performed in a progressive way through macro-cycle (months workout plan), meso-cycle (weeks workout plan) and micro-cycle (days workout plan). Training in sports is followed in a systematic way of schedules and sessions. 

Training programme has to be planned previously and should follow the systematic progression without bringing decline in performance. It has to be followed with proper loading and adaptation. It requires sufficient rest and recovery. It should consider motivational factors for best results. 

Training has three parts:

(a) Preparatory period (b) Competition period (c) Transitional period (off season)

(a) Preparatory Period

In this period, the player achieves the physical fitness and skill efficiency for the competition. It is practiced in three phases:

Phase 1: In this phase, the player develops the general abilities relating to physical

fitness like strength and endurance along with basic skills. The player can improve performance in about 4-6 months of practice in an annually planned training method.

Phase 2: In this phase, the player develops specific physical fitness abilities like speed and flexibility. Player learns advanced skills and techniques. It is done for about 2 months.

Phase 3: In this phase of training, the player develops the tactics, strategies, coordination and tries to achieve every perfection for the competition.

(b) Competition Period

In this period, player participates for competition and aims to achieve top performance in competition. Initially some practice matches are played where mistakes are corrected (known as Competition Part I). 

Later players participate in actual matches where motivation and feedback are provided for peak performance of the player (known as Competition Part II).

(c) Transitional Period (Off Season): 

This is a relaxing period after competition to recover from the stress. In this period, the player recovers from competition stress and maintains physical abilities for the next competition. 

Initially recreational activities are performed afterward similar types of activities are played along with recreation.

Importance of Training Methods

(1) Develops the Required Fitness Component: Proper training method improves the required physical fitness component which helps to improve sports performance.

(ii) Perfection in Skill: Training method helps to gain perfection in skills and techniques, thus performance has increased.

(iii) Systematic Progression: Training method follows systematic progression thus a high level of results can be achieved.

(iv) Warming-up and Cooling-down: In the training method proper warming-up (general and specific warming-up) is performed in the beginning and in the end cooling-down is performed. It prevents injuries, fatigue and also prepares the athlete psychologically for the coming task.

(v) Involves Scientific Principles: As training methods are based upon scientific principles which are followed in systematic way thus high performance can be achieved.

(vi) Proper Overloading: Good training method follows proper overloading thus proper adaptation of the load (workout) is achieved which helps to improve further.

(vii) Proper Rest and Relaxation: In a training method, there is proper consideration to rest

and relaxation thus there are less chances of over fatigue or tiredness; moreover, it prevents staleness (chronic fatigue).

(vii) Safety Means: A good training method considers the safety means thus, chances of injuries are reduced.

(ix) Psychological Factor: A good training method involves psychological factors like motivation, interest development, control of anxiety, proper feedback etc. Thus, the performance is improved.

(x) Individual Differences: In a training method, there is proper consideration of individual differences and according to that the workout or load is given.

(xi) Balanced Diet: Training method also considers the balanced diet which should be according

Principles of Sports Training

Principles of sports training are the scientific and systematic way to improve sports performance. They guide us to develop our physical fitness abilities to improve further.

The important principles are:

(1) Principle of Continuity or Regularity: Regularity is very important to improve further. The programme of training should be followed regularly without a long break. Irregular schedule does not improve fitness. It is a biological necessity. 

(ii) Principle of Reversibility and Repetition: According to this the workout or load must be done with sufficient repetition. The activity should be repeated again and again so that proper adaptation and acclimatization should be taken up by the individual. The next schedule should be practiced before starting a new schedule or workout or load.

(iii) Principle of Proper Overloading: A gradual increase in physical activity brings improvement. The work or load should be increased gradually after the adaptation of previous work or load. It can be given by slep method or in linear method.

(iv) Principle of Specific and Scientific Training: The activity should be performed in scientific ways according to the requirement of the game. It should particularly improve the desired ability.

(v) Principle of Individual Difference: The training programme should be according to the limits of an individual; keeping in mind the age, sex, height, heredity and environmental factors.

(vi) Principle of Rest and Recovery: There should be proper rest, relaxation and sleep after every schedule of hard work. The recovery should not be very long so that the one should be ready for further workout.

(vii) Principle Warming-up and Limbering down: The training work should be started with warming-up and ended with limbering down. It is also important for the prevention of injuries.

(viii) Principle of Progression: The training programme should follow a proper progression. It should start with an easy activity in the beginning and harder activities later on, i.e.. simple to complex.

(ix) Principle of Safety and Prevention: Prevention is always better than cure. So we should keep in mind the safety measures while performing a physical training schedule.

(x) Principle of Psychological Feedback: In this principle, the psychological feedback (motivation) keeps the enthusiasm and pleasure in activity. It energizes me to perform further. Thus, training should be considered as a motivational factor.

(xi) Principle of Medical Check-up: According to this proper medical check-up should be done before any hard physical training. Doctor’s consultation should be taken in cases of injury, illness and rhythmic weakness.

(xii) Principle of Total Body Involvement: The training programme should be designed in such a way that one should exercise every part of the body to ensure proportionate body development, i.e., total body involvement.

(xiii) Principle of Adaptation and Tolerance: Exercises performed by an individual should be adapted to one’s tolerance ability. Exercise tolerance is the level/capacity at which the human body favorably responds to training.

Warming Up

Warming up is a preliminary exercise of physical and mental preparation for a strenuous exertion.

According to Wikipedia, “Warming up is a preparation for physical exertion or performance by exercising or practicing gently beforehand”.

According to Robert Dennis, “It is a preparatory exercise done before competition”.

In other words, we can say warming-up is a set of exercises, sorted and graded, all muscles and joints whose purpose is to prepare the body for any physical sports to perform properly without any injury. Or it is a set of exercises and movements which are performed before the competition.

Warming-up is the process of heating the body muscles through certain exercises prior to the competition. By doing so, the body gets prepared psychologically and physiologically to bear the stress of competition. 

Warming-up raises the body temperature slightly higher because of which neuromuscular coordination improves. It tones up body muscles and mind for the coming activity. Warming-up in simple words is a “pre-competition work”.

Warming-up is of two types: (i) Psychological, (ii) Physiological.

i. Psychological Warming-Up

It prepares the mental attitude towards the competition. It makes players mentally ready through various psychological ways like motivation, feedback, behavioral changes, etc. By these ways, performance gets improved. This is generally required in academic subjects where muscular responses are not required.

ii. Physiological Warming-Up

It prepares the body physiologically to take the workload of physical stress for competition. Physiological warming-up can be done through two ways: (a) Passive (b) Active

(a) Passive Warm-up: In this, the player warms-up his body through external sources and not with actual participation in physical activities. It can be done through various ways like hot bath, sun bath, steam bath, hot beverages, massage, etc.

(b) Active Warm-up: In this, the player warms-up his body through actual participation in physical activities. He performs various physical movements which improve efficiency of his body and tone up muscles for the coming competition. 

Its duration is 10-30 minutes. It is never performed all-out, i.e., a person should not be tired while doing these activities.

It is of two types: (a) General warming-up (b) Specific warming-up.

(a) General Warming Up

It is general in nature and commonly performed for every activity in a similar way. It consists of simple exercises like jogging or slow running, stretching, rotation exercises, calisthenics, jumping, striding and wind sprints. This general warming-up tones up the major muscles and improves the mobility of joints. according to the coming needs.

Performing Warming-up 

Firstly go for jogging for 5-10 minutes covering 1 to 2 km distance. Then perform stretching exercises from top to bottom. Perform them with sufficient repetitions like

neck rotation, shoulder rotation, alternate swinging exercises of arms, hip rotation, forward bending, backward bending, sideward bending, alternate toe touching and few sit ups. After this few strides are followed by wind sprint 4-5 (50 distance)

(b) Specific warming up

It is specific in nature and differs from activity to activity. It tones up the smaller muscles

which are commonly used in that particular activity. 

It raises the mobility of smaller joints. This improves eye and body coordination. By this the perfection in skill is improved. It actually prepares the body physically and mentally.

Specific Warming-up of Some Games And Sports:

Basketball: Shuttle running, dribbling, shooting or basketball practice, lay up shoots, dodging etc.

Badminton: Arc making with jumps, tossing shuttle, high clears, low clears, smashing, dropping practice, court crafting, etc.

Cricket: Dummy bowling and batting action, knocking, net practice, catching practice, etc.

Football: Ball dribbling, ball juggling, kicking, heading, etc.

Hockey: Stick rotation, dribbling, taping, hitting, scoops, etc.

Tennis: Service practice, knocking, passing shots, wall practice, volley clear, slice clear, lob returns, etc.

Importance of Warming Up

(i) Reduces Risk of Injuries: Warming-up raises the body temperature slightly higher. This makes muscles more flexible and their contractility increases. By this, the chances of injuries are reduced.

(ii) Regulates Systems: It regulates the cardiorespiratory system for the coming needs. It increases the supply of blood to working muscles. More supply of oxygen also reaches the working tissues.

(iii) Increases Energy Level: It regulates the metabolic rate, by this the efficiency of energy production gets improved. It increases the energy sources for the working body and thus the body can work for longer duration.

(iv) Better Responses: There is better neuro-muscular coordination, therefore, fast and efficient responses. Reaction time improves as muscles are toned up.

(v) Prepare Mentally and Improves Concentration : It mentally prepares us for the upcoming competition. Mind becomes ready for the coming activity and thus more concentration towards the activity.

(vi) Increases Perfection: Warm-ups make better perfection in the skills, techniques and

tactics. The coordination becomes more, thus results are better. Moreover, confidence develops.

(vii) Improves Endurance: Warming-up also improves our endurance level as it toned up our muscles and other body parts, hence performance can become better.

Limbering Down

According to Wikipedia, “These are easy and slow exercises done after more intense activity, to allow the body to gradually transition to a resting or near resting state”.

Limbering Down/Cooling Down is an easy exercise, done after an intense activity, to allow the body to gradually transition to a resting or near-resting state. It is done at the end of the activity,it consists of very simple exercises at slow pace/speed like slow

jogging, slow stretching exercises and deep breathing exercises at the end, etc. By cooling down, the body temperature is slowly brought to normal which is raised during activity. 

Importance of Limbering Down

(1) Reduces Fatigue Level: It removes the lactic acid from muscles which gets accumulated during activity and causes fatigue, tiredness and staleness. So this lactic acid is removed from muscles and muscles feel comfortable.

(ii) Body gets Relaxed: By limbering down, the various body systems come to normal state which were higher/hyper during stressful activity. Thus, body feels relaxed and it again becomes ready for my next job.

(iii) Body Refreshes: Cooling down is essential for recovering to pre-exercise/workout state and for re-adjusting various functions of body, i.e., physical, physiological, biochemical and psychological

(iv) Reduces Pain in Body: Limbering down is also essential to avoid pooling-down of blood in veins, which causes fatigue.

(v) Prevents Infection: It reduces the bacterial, viral, and fungus infection chances (because or raised body temperature and sweating during activity is prone to bacterial, viral and fungus infection).


Endurance is the ability to sustain or continue activity. In other words, it is the ability to resist fatigue. It is one of the important components for middle and long distance races, and is required for almost all major games like football, hockey, basketball, handball, etc. It can be measured through  distance run or time factor races.

Development of endurance indirectly develops strength and speed. Endurance is required for almost every major game and sport. Nowadays teams and players have equal level of skills and tactical ability where endurance makes a difference in the result of competition. 

It is of two types:

(a) Anaerobic Endurance/ Short-Term/Muscular Endurance: This endurance is helpful to perform activity with fast speed. It is of two types:

(i) Speed Endurance: This is the type of endurance in which the activity is done with high speed or intensity. This endurance is for a shorter duration (from 30 seconds to 60 seconds) with 80% to 90% of top speed ability. It produces high levels of lactic acid, oxygen debt. It causes a lot of fatigue. This endurance is mostly required in Medium Distance Races (400 m), Swimming, Games like Basketball, Handball, Volleyball, Tennis, Badminton etc.

(ii) Strength Endurance: This is the type of endurance in which the activity is done powerfully and forcefully for a shorter duration. These activities duration is from 2 to 3 minutes. This endurance requires a lot of muscular strength thus also referred as Muscular Endurance. Strength endurance is

performed in absence of oxygen with the help of stored energy in muscle as glycogen. This kind of endurance is required in Wrestling, Boxing, Judo, Men Gymnastics, 800 m race etc.

(b) Long-term/Aerobic/Cardiovascular Endurance: This type of endurance is helpful when the activity is done for longer duration and the intensity or speed is slower. It is, in fact, the combination of circulatory with respiratory system which provides continuous energy for workout. It is required for Long Distance Races, Road Cycling, Cross-country, Marathon Race, Football, etc.

Methods To Develop Endurance

(1) Continuous Training method

Continuous training method is one of the oldest methods in which a player performs running or activity for long period without having any rest, break or interval in-between. In these methods, only the speed or pace makes the difference. It develops very high level of endurance. It is practiced once or twice in a week. It is of following types:

Distance or Workout Duration

(a) Slow Continuous Training Method: This method is basically used by Cross-country

Runners or Marathon Runners, Distance cycling, Triathlon Athletes, Football players, Hockey players, Basketball players, etc. as it develops high level of aerobic endurance. In this method, the speed or pace is set slow but the duration of workout or distance is very long. Duration of workout is approximately 30 to 60 minutes whereas the distance covered is 5 to 10 km. 

Heart rate is kept around 140 to 170 beats/minute. Work is done with slow pace to medium pace approximately 50 to 70 per cent of the maximum ability. In the end of workout limbering down is performed with maximum stretching exercises.

(b) Fast Continuous Training Method: This method is used basically by Sprinters, Middle Distance Runners, skill games players like Badminton, Tennis, etc. where they require anaerobic endurance along with speed. The load or workout is performed with faster pace or the workout is faster. It is performed for the duration of 15 to 30 minutes whereas distance covered is 3 to 5 km.

Heart rate is kept around 160 to 200 beats/minute. Workout is done at 70 to 90 per cent of maximum ability as the intensity of workout is very high for longer duration. The cooling-down should be done in the end with more stretching exercises.

(2) Interval Training Method

This training method is also known as Terrace Training. This method was first introduced by Woldemar and Gerschler and again modified by Reindell. This method is considered as the best method for development of endurance. 

In this method, the principle of “effort and incomplete recovery” is followed. In interval training method, the total workout or total load is done in small parts where incomplete rest is given between each workout or load. It is like:

Workout → Rest → Workout → Rest

Workout → Rest Workout …

Interval training method is a special endurance training that involves burst of high intensity workout or load followed by low activity or rest. This method is based upon the scientific principles where effort/load or workout is controlled through various factors to provide incomplete recovery, such as:

(i) Volume or Total Distance or Total Load

(ii) Intensity or Speed of Workout

(iii) Distance in Intervals or Duration of Workout or Load

(iv) Number of Repetitions or Frequency

(v) Duration of Rest between each Interval

(vi) Heart rate or Pulse factor

(vii) Mode of Recovery

The main factor used to regulate the Interval Training method is done by increasing or

decreasing the rest duration. In 1:1 Ratio Interval Training Method’ represent that the workout or load duration is equal to rest duration. In the ‘1:2 Ratio Interval Training Method’ represent that the workout/load duration is half as compared to rest duration.

In this Interval Training Method, the total workout is divided into small periods. These periods are performed with certain speed in intervals or rest. Incomplete rest or recovery is given in intervals.

Interval training method is of two types:

(a) Slow or Extensive Interval Training Method: In this method

(i) Total Distance is 5 to 10 km or Volume is 30 minutes to 1 hour workout.

(ii) Distance is 300 to 800 metres or 2 to 5 minutes workout at medium pace.

(iii) Speed of workout is 60 to 80 per cent (of best speed) or medium pace run.

(iv) Frequency or number of repetitions is 15 to 20 times.

(v) Duration of rest is 1 to 3 minutes (after each repetition).

(vi) Heart rate is kept around 140 to 170 beats/minute.

(vii) Mode of recovery is walk- slow jogging or rest.

(b) Fast or Intensive Interval Training Method: In this method:

(i) Total distance is 2 to 5 km or volume of workout is 15 to 30 minutes.

(ii) Distance is 80 to 300 meters or 30 seconds to 2 minutes workout at fast pace.

(iii) Intensity or speed is 80 to 100 per cent (of best speed) or with all out ability.

(iv) Frequency or number of repetitions is 15 to 20 times.

(v) Duration of rest is 1 to 3 minutes (after each repetition).

(vi) Heart rate is kept around 170 to 200 beats/minute.

(vii) Mode of recovery is walk or slow jogging or rest

Advantages of Interval Training Method:

(i) This endurance training method develops high level of aerobic and anaerobic endurance.

(ii) In less number of days we can develop high level of endurance.

(iii) Interval training method is easy to administer and organize as coach can easily supervise his trainees.

(iv) Rest and recovery is given importance so less chances of over fatigue or staleness.

(v) Proper overloading can be provided and applied to players. The progress of athlete can be measured or evaluated easily.

(vi) Effective for athletes of almost all games and sports as it develops speed along with endurance.

(vii) Very effective for runner, sprinter, middle distance runner, long distance runner. Thus,

practiced once or twice in a week.

3) Fartlek Training Method

Fartlek is a Swedish term which means ‘Speed Play. This method was introduced by O. Astrand and Gosta Holmer. 

This is an effective method for the development of endurance and speed. In this method, athlete uses natural resources and environment for workout. Thus the natural track is utilized for running. 

Athlete is set free to run from a starting point with his own pace, may he run fast or slow. Athlete himself regulates or controls his speed. Athlete is made free to choose his path, may it be a shortcut or long route. 

They may take rest by sitting or walking or slow jog. Player may run fast or sprint, etc. but thing to be kept in mind is that he has to reach the finishing point within the desired time.

In Fartlek Training Method, the natural course is selected as it should have hills, forests, sand, river bed, roads, countryside fields, etc. Before starting, athlete should perform proper warming-up.

The approximate distance to be covered is 10 to 20 km. The duration should be kept around 1 to 2 hours. It should be practiced once in a week. It is usually practiced during transitional period or offseason. Athlete should carry water as well as safety tools for emergency.

Advantages of Fartlek Training Method

i. Fartliek training method is practiced in off-season period. 

ii. It develops creativity and gives adventure along with physical fitness.

iii. This endurance training method provides experience of nature.

iv. Natural motivation is there with lot of enjoyment, thus no boredom.

v. Fartliek training method develops the caliber of tackling situation.

vi. Ahlete learns to control his speed or pace which is important for long distance running.

vii. Art of self-learning is experienced as there is lot of variation

Disadvantages of Fartlek Training Method

i. Fartlek training method may cause accident as path is not pre-planned.

ii. Actual running track is missing which is used for competitions.

iii. Coach can’t have fall check over trainees.

iv. Path may be dangerous or athlete may be lost from its destination.


Strength is an ability of muscles to overcome resistance or act against resistance. Strength

can be defined as the amount of force a muscle can exert. It is an essential component for games and sports. 

Different games require different levels and types of strength. It can be improved through systematic training, To develop each sub-component of strength, we need to consider the following measures:

i. Intensity or Speed of Workout

ii. Volume or Duration of Workout

iii. Rest or Recovery

iiv. Load or Resistance or Weight

v. Frequency or Repetition

vi. Rest and recovery

Types of Strength

(a) Static Strength : It is also known as Isometric strength. It is the ability to act against resistance from single or one position, e.g., arm wrestling, power lifting, pushing wall, etc.

(b) Dynamic Strength : It is also known as Isotonic strength. It is related to the movement. Thus, we can say that it is required for the movement. 

It is of three types:

(i) Maximal Strength: It is the ability to act against maximum resistance. It is also known as power. It is the quality of muscle to contract forcefully in the quickest possible time. It is more required in weightlifting, throwing, wrestling, etc. It can be measured by throw attempts and power lifting.

(ii) Explosive Strength: It is the ability to overcome resistance with a high speed. In fact, it is the combination of strength and speed. In simple words, it is the ability of muscles to perform forceful movement at the quickest possible time. 

It is also termed as explosive power, generally required in jumping activity and also in those games and sports where very fast and powerful responses are required. This strength can be measured by dynamometer or by jumps chinning test.

iii) Strength Endurance: It is the combination of strength and endurance ability. It is defined as the ability to overcome resistance under fatigue conditions. This quality enables a person to sustain localized muscle groups for an extended period of time. 

It is commonly required for long distance races, swimming, road cycling and mountaineering. etc. Strength endurance can be measured through chin-ups.

Strength Training Methods

Isometric Exercises

The isometric exercises were firstly explained by Hettinger and Muller (1953). They were having the views that tremendous amount of strength can be developed through these exercises.

Isometric is derived from Latin word which means same length. In these strength training exercises, the length of muscles remains the same during workout. These exercises, have no external movements and work done is zero.

Hence, these exercises have no visible movement, though lot of pressure is experienced by the person performing it. In isometric exercises muscles, contract but do not move the joint, thus muscle fibers maintain a constant length.

In these exercises, muscles develop slot of tension, i.e. muscles become hard but there is no movement taking place and the length of muscles does not change during these exercises. 

Advantages of Isometric Exercises :

(i) It can be performed anywhere; moreover, no helper is required.

(ii) In isometric exercises, less or no equipments are required as immovable objects are used.

(iii) Less time is required to perform whereas effects are more.

(iv) It can be performed by an injured player (according to player’s level, under care and precautions).

(v) Isometric strength training exercises develop high level of static strength and maximal strength, thus effective for total muscular strength.

(vi) These exercises can be performed during warming-up sessions.

Disadvantages of Isometric Exercises :

(i) It develops static strength whereas in most of the games and sports dynamic strength is required.

(ii) Isometric exercises raise the blood pressure (not recommended for heart patients).

(iii) Loss of interest after a few days because of same type of exercises.

(iv) There is less variety of isometric exercises.

Isotonic Exercises

Isotonic exercises were developed by De Lorme (1954). Isotonic is derived from Latin word which means same tension. In these strength training exercises, the muscular group has tension along with movement. In isotonic exercise the length, of muscles changes (shortens or lengthens).

It shortens during action along with tension in them. Some work is done during these exercises, like jumping, running, doing skills, lifting weight, doing any action with movement, etc.

Isotonic exercises are of two types: 

(i) Concentric (ii) Eccentric.

(i) Concentric: It is the upward movement of action in which the flexor (anagonist) muscle

shorten during action whereas extensor (antagonist) muscles lengthen in size. In these exercises, on group of muscles (flexor muscles) contracts and opposite group of muscles (extensor muscles) relaxe

Examples of concentric exercises are like biceps curling (flexion of arm), lifting thedumbells, throwing the ball, chin-ups, etc

(ii) Eccentric: It is the type of isotonic exercise in which the extensor muscles shorten in length whereas flexor muscles lengthen during the action, i.e. downward movement of hand. In these exercises, the extensor muscles contract and the flexor muscles relax.

Examples of eccentric exercises like lowering the weight (extension of arm), dips, push-ups, bench-press, kicking the ball, etc.

Advantages of Isotonic Exercises :

(i) It develops dynamic strength. This is mostly required in games and sports.

(ii) These exercises develop strength and endurance as both can be developed together.

(iii) It brings hypertrophy of muscles, i.c. muscles gain mass along with thickness.

(iv) Isotonic exercises improve flexibility, thus muscles have more contractibility.

(v) These exercises are used for developing explosive strength along with strength endurance.

Disadvantages of Isotonic Exercises :

(1) Chances of stress and strain injuries (due to jerky actions if body is not properly warmed-up)

(ii) Sometimes equipments are required to perform.

Isokinetic Exercises

Isokinetic exercises for strength training were introduced by J.J. Perrine (1968). Isokinetic

exercises were derived from Latin word which means same motion. In these exercises, there is movement along with continuous tension in both flexor and extensor muscles. 

In these, the muscles contract maximally throughout the full range of movement at a constant speed, i.e. both flexor and extensor muscles contract simultaneously. Here, both the flexor and extensor muscles have tension along with full range of movement (may be upward or downward). 

Advantages of Isokinetic Exercises

(i) Isokinetic exercises develop high level of dynamic as well as static strength.

(ii) These are effective for almost every game or sport.

(iii) Isokinetic exercises improve endurance along with strength.

(iv) It improves all types of strengths like explosive strength, maximal strength, strength endurance.

Disadvantages of Isokinetic Exercises

(i) It requires special types of equipments.

(ii) These exercises should be performed under observation of a coach.

Also Read: CBSE Class 12 PE Chapter 10 Training in Sports Notes

Circuit Training Method

This is one of the methods for development of various components of physical fitness whereas it is popularly considered for the development of strength and endurance. 

This method was developed by Morgan and Adamson. In circuit training method, a series of selective exercises are performed continuously without rest at different stations or points.

It is performed at small place known as ‘Circuit’. There are usually 5 to 10 selective exercises which are arranged in circuit training method. At each station a particular type of exercise is performed without rest with a certain number of repetitions or for a certain time duration. 

Special care is taken so that successive stations should not have similar exercises involving the same muscles. Athlete proceeds to next station after performing exercises of that station and goes on till the end of the circuit.

This circuit set-up may be indoor or outdoor. The important thing to be kept in mind while selecting exercises is that each exercise should be different from the previous exercise. It should not consist of same muscular groups which were used at previous station, i.e. successive station should have different exercises.

In circuit training method, the exercises are planned well in advance. The exercises in circuit training method consist of general exercises or exercise specifically related to particular game. We can increase the difficulty level by increasing the number of repetitions or by increasing the time duration.

Advantages of Circuit Training Method:

(i) It is the best method for beginners as it develops strength, endurance and coordinative ability.

(ii) A single person or coach can control a number of students.

(iii) 5 to 10 students can be trained at the same time.

(iv) Circuit training method does not create boredom as many varieties of exercises can be included.

(v) Maximum functioning of muscles can be gained in a single circuit.

(vi) General as well as specific exercises for the game can be performed.

Points to be considered in Circuit Training Session

(i) Number of repetitions at each station.

(ii) Different exercises from the previous exercises.

(iii) No rest should be taken.

(iv) Duration of exercise (approximately 30 sec. to 2 min.)

Weight Training

It is one of the oldest methods for development of strength. Strength is one of the very essential components of physical fitness and it directly or indirectly improves the other components of physical

fitness. It consists of various types of exercises like isotonic, isometric and isokinetic.

To increase strength, weight-training is considered as one of the best training methods. In weight training we practise with the tools which provide resistance or weight such as barbells, rods, plates, weight training machines, free body weight resistance. 

Weight training depends upon the principle of over loading which has to be given in a progressive way. Thus, the weight or resistance is gradually increased depending upon the muscular ability and type of strength component requirement (explosive strength, maximal strength and strength endurance).

Before starting weight training session, a proper warming-up should be done. Some of the general exercises performed in weight training are:

Shoulder and arms: Bench press, shoulder press, lat pull, arm curl, butterfly pull, chin ups, push-ups etc.

Abdomen: Sit-ups, Ab-crunch, reverse sit-ups, L-hold etc.

Legs: Half squat lift, full squat lift, heel raise, stepping/stair jump, leg curl, leg extension etc.

Factors to be considered during weight training session

(i) Types of strength requirements i.e.,  Maximum strength, explosive strength and strength endurance 

(ii) Body part requirement, i.e., which part to be strengthened.

(iii) Number of repetitions and sets.

(vi) Resistance or weight.

(vii) Duration of weight training session.

Advantages of Weight Training

(i) It increases strength (every type).

(ii) It improves diet.

(iii) It increases the endurance,

(iv) It improves body posture, structure and controls body weight.

(v) it removes fats from muscles.

(vi) It helps in rehabilitation process

(vii) It reduces the chances of injury.


Speed is the ability to perform movement at faster rate. In other words, it is the ability to move as fast as possible. Speed is basically dependent on heredity but can be improved through proper training. It depends upon heredity factor (white muscle fiber or fast twitch muscle fiber). 

It is one of the important components for sprinting and also required for fast response skills in games and sports.

Speed can be measured through reflex test, short sprint, etc. For speed development sufficient level of strength, endurance, flexibility and coordinative ability are also required.

(a) Reaction Time: It is the time taken by the body to respond immediately after the stimulus. It can also be said as the first reaction to bring body into action.

(b) Acceleration Ability: It is the time taken by the body to reach maximum speed. This helps to gain initial speed during action. It depends upon explosive strength.

(c) Speed of Movement: It is the quickness of complete action or movement. In other words, it is the time taken by the body to perform complete action. It depends upon technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative abilities.

(d) Locomotor Ability: It is maintaining of the top speed for longer duration with change of direction. It depends upon anaerobic endurance.

(e) Speed Endurance: This is the type of endurance in which the activity is done with high speed or intensity. This endurance is for shorter duration (from 30 seconds to 60 seconds) with 80% to 90% of top speed ability.

Methods To Develop Speed

(i) Acceleration Run

This is the training method for developing the acceleration zone or speed up zone in races. This method is generally used to develop speed while attaining maximum speed from a static position. 

Acceleration is the capacity to attain maximum speed in minimum time. In this method, athlete tries to attain top speed as fast as possible. After attaining the top speed the athlete gradually slows down.

This training is performed from the stationary position or from the crouch position. Athlete runs 40 to 50 meters distance with maximum speed so as to attain top speed. This is repeated 5 to 10 times with sufficient rest period. The rest period is 2 to 5 minutes to provide sufficient recovery.

(ii) Pace Run

In this method, the stable pace or constant speed is maintained (approximately 800 meters distance) through various ways like continuous feedback by coach during

running – like coach calls runners to “speed up more or slow down”; sometimes the ‘time’ is announced by coach to the runners so that they can cover a certain distance in a certain time. 


Flexibility is the ability of joints to move in maximum range. In other words, this is the range of a joint to move maximum. Flexibility is specific to a given joint and dependent upon the musculature surrounding a joint. 

Flexibility varies from joint to joint due to its structure, surrounding, adjoining ligaments, tendons and muscles. It is measured through a flexometer.

(a) Active Flexibility: It is performed without any external help or self movement of a part to maximum range. It is again of two types:

(i) Static Flexibility: It is the flexibility performed from stationary position, e.g., Chakraasana, toe touching, sideward bending, etc.

(ii) Dynamic Flexibility: It is the flexibility performed while in motion or movement. This is required for gymnastics, diving, etc.

(b) Passive Flexibility: It is the ability of joint to move in maximum range with external help. eg. stretching with partner.

Methods To Develop Flexibility

1. Active Flexibility Method

In Active Flexibility method, player performs flexibility exercise without any external help. In this method, individual tries to achieve maximum flexibility of joint through muscular activities. Thus, muscle fibers helps to stretch the joint to maximum range. Active flexibility method is performed in two ways.

(a) Static Flexibility Method

In this method, individual performs various slow stretching exercises from stationary position and holds the final position for some time (approximately 1 minute).

(b) Slow Stretching and Hold Method: In this method, the muscles are slowly stretched and final position is held for several seconds (approximately 30 seconds). Thus, the muscles are stretched and released so that greater length of muscles develop. 

These exercises are performed without any external help. Examples of these are like bending the body sideward or backward or forward. Various yogic asanas are also helpful for this like Paschimottan asana, Chakra asana, etc.

(c) Ballistic Flexibility Method: In this method, individuals perform various stretching exercises while in motion. Thus, these are stretching the muscles with the help of swinging the limbs for body segments. 

In this final position is not held whereas swinging helps to attain flexibility. It is performed without any external help. Some of these are like swinging the hands to sides;

swinging the trunk to sideward, forward, backward; swinging the legs to sides, upward, backward, etc.

Ballistic method may cause injury if body is not warmed up. It should proceed from slow swinging exercises in beginning followed by fast swinging exercises.

2. Passive Flexibility Method

In this method, player performs various flexibility exercises with external help. In this method muscles are stretched by an external help like partner supporting for flexibility. 

Certain equipments such as stretch ropes, big role ball, bar stand, etc. are used. Care should be taken while providing partner support, i.e. jerky forceful pressure should be avoided. It is the most effective form of stretching and also considered as the most painful type of stretching.

Coordinative Ability Or  Agility

It is the ability of the human body to change direction quickly and effectively. In other words, it is the ability to change movement or direction in the shortest time without getting unbalanced. 

This provides good balance of body during action. It is, in fact, the proper combination of strength, speed, endurance and flexibility during movement. The accuracy of actions, rhythm, change of movement balance, graceful action, etc. all depends upon coordinative ability. It is mainly neuromuscular coordination that depends upon central nervous system. It is required for almost every game

Types of Coordinative Ability 

(i) Adaptive Ability: It is the ability that enables modifications of motor activity on the basis of comparison or anticipation of new or

changing condition while performing activity. It can be gained through regular practice of certain skills of that particular activity.

(ii) Balance Ability : It is the ability to keep body or its parts in relatively stable position. This ability is improved through regular practice of balancing skill like walking on small step, standing on small duster etc.

(iii) Coupling Ability: This ability is also named as Combinatory ability. It is the ability to put partial movements together into more complex movements. It is improved by performing complex skills regularly like football, foot movements for ball control or dribbling.

(iv) Kinesthetic Ability: It is the ability to realize kinesthetic and dynamic features of movement. It can be developed by balancing on moving objects, standing on raised heel with closed eyes, walking on rope etc.

(v) Rhythm Ability : It is the ability that enables to grasp motor movements and expresses that movements are in a very coordinated way with graceful actions. It improves by practicing dancing skills etc.

(vi) Orientation Ability: It is practice of coordinative exercises to response a complex movement and activity. This ability can be improved by participating in multi games and sports.

Final Words

From the above article you have learnt about Sports training method in details if you have any doubt please feel free to comment.

Also Read: lSE PE Chapter 1 Notes Sociological Aspects of Physical Education

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