Nationalism in India Notes and Questions | Unit 1 | Chapter 1 | Social Science

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Nationalism In India Notes And Questions

The growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement in India. In the process of struggle with the colonialism, people started discovering their unity. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to unite each class and group together within one movement.

The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement

The First World War 1914 created a new economic and political situation worldwide. India faced various problems during the war period. For example

1. Defence expenditure increased
2. Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced
3. Prices of food grains were increased and doubled between 1913 and 1918
4. Villagers were recruited forcefully in Army

After the war in 1918-19, Indian industries faced heavy losses, people suffered from acute shortage of food, influenza epidemic etc. In such a critical situation, a new leader Mahatma Gandhi came to India from South Africa in January, 1915.

The Idea of Satyagraha

Gandhiji’s method of movement and protest based on truth and nonviolence was known as Satyagraha. Idea of Satyagraha exercise on the power of truth. As per Gandhiji without being aggressive as Satyagrahi could win the battle through non violence.

In 1917, Gandhi ji travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the pigeons to struggle against oppressive plantation system. In the same Gandhiji also organised Satyagraha to support the peasants in the Kheda district of Gujarat who were suffering from shortage of food due to crop failure and plague epidemic.

In 1918, Gandhiji went to Ahmedabad to organise a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

The Rowlatt Act

The Rowlatt Act was passed through the Imperial legislative council in 1919. But Indian members opposed the act. According to this act, the political prisoners could be detained in prison for two years without any trial. Gandhiji decided to oppose this act with Satyagraha.

On 6th April 1919, Gandhiji launched nationwide Satyagraha with a hartal. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshop and shops were closed down. Several local leaders were arrested, Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi.

On 10th April 1919, the police in Amritsar open fired on peaceful procession. Martial Law was imposed in Amritsar and the command of the area was given to General Dyer.

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre

On 13th April 1919, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab. Some people gathered there to protest against government’s repressive measures, while some came to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Many of them unaware of the Martial law that was imposed.

General Dyer blocked the exit points of the ground and gave order to open fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed in this incident. As the news spread, strikes and clashes with the police and attacks and government building started.

The government responded with force to end the movement by humiliating people. Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and to salam to all sahibs. Rabindranath Tagore returned his title, knighthood during this incident. Mahatma Gandhi called of the Satyagraha movement when he saw spread of violence.

Khilafat Movement

The first world war had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Empire. After the First World War, rumours were spread that a peace treaty was going to be imposed on Khalifa (spiritual head of the Islamic world) of Ottoman Empire. Gandhiji believed that by this Khilafat issue, he could unite the Hindus and Muslims and launch a wide movement in India.

A Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay under the leadership of Maulana Azad Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohan.i Muslim leaders Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali began discussing with Gandhiji about united mass action on the Khilafat issue as an opportunity of uniting Hindus and Muslims.

The Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in September 1920 to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

Need of Non-Cooperation Movement

Gandhiji in 1909 declared that British rule was established in India with the corporation of British rule in Indians. If Indian refused to co-operate, British rule in India would collapse with in an year and Swaraj would come.

Gandhi proposed the following strategies for the implementation of Non-Cooperation movement:-

1. The movement would begin with the surrender of titles on as an already posted by people
2. The movement would boycott civil services, army, police, British courts and legislative assemblies, school and colleges and British goods.
3. The British goods would be replaced by domestic goods or Swadeshi to promote the native cottage industries
4. In case of government suppression, civil disobedience movement would be launched

The Non-Cooperation movement was adopted by Congress during the Nagpur Conference in December 1920 and began under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Differing Strands Within The Movement

In January 1921, The Non-Cooperation Khilafat movement started. Various social group participate in the movement with specific aspirations.

The Movement In The Towns 

Non-Cooperation Khilafat movement started in the cities with middle class participation in which

1. Students and teachers left government control schools and law is left courts
2. Foreign goods were boycotted promotions. The merchant and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As a result, the production of Indian textile mills and handlooms increased
4. Liquor shops were picketed
5. Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras

However, this movement slowed down for many reasons like expensive Khadi clothes were not suitable people and no alternative institution was set up finally the teacher and student had to resume their studies and jobs in Government schools and lawyers join back in government courts.

Peasant Movement in Awadh

In Awadh, the Peasant Movement developed under the leadership of Baba Ram Chandra (A sanyasi who had earlier been to in Fiji as an indentured labourer). This Peasant Movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In many places, nai-dhobi bands were organised by panchayat student services to all landlords.

In October 1920, Oudh Kisan Sabha what setup. It was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ram Chandra and a few others. Within a month over 300 branches of the Sabha had been set up in the villages around the region. As the peasant movement spread, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaar were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

Tribal Movement in Andhra Pradesh

Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920 and under the leadership of Alluri Sitarama Raju. Raju convinced people to work hard and give up drinking according to Gandhiji’s ideas.

The Gudem rebels attacked the police station, attempted to kill British officials and carried on Guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj. Raju was captured and executed in 1924 and gradually became a folk hero.

Swaraj in the Plantation

According to the Indian Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

When the news of non-cooperation movement spread to the plantation, they left their job and headed toward their home. Plantation workers believed that in Gandhi Raj, everyone would be given land in their own village. However, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

Towards Civil Disobedience

In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement as he felt that movement was turning violent in many places and Satyagraha is needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

Chauri-Chaura incident was the main reason behind withdrawing the Non- Cooperation movement. Incident occurred at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of United province on 4th February 1922.

Different views within Congress

Some leaders within Congress were tired of mass struggle and wanted to participate in the election duty provincial councils set up by the government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the council.

CR Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for return to council politics whereas some young leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru when Subhash Chandra Bose argued for more strong mass agitation and for full independence. In this situation of internal debate and discussions. Two factors shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920 which were

1. the effect of worldwide economic depression
2. agricultural prices which begin to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930

Formation of Simon Commission

The Simon Commission was constituted under the John Simon. The main objective of Simon Commission was to review the functioning of constitutional system in India and suggest changes in the system.

Indian leaders oppose the commission as there were no Indian in it. When the commission arrived in India in 1928, it was treated with slogan ‘Simon Go back. All parties including the Congress and emotionally participate in the demonstration.

Demand of Purna Swaraj

In 1929, the Viceroy Lord Irwin announced an uncertain offer of ‘Dominion Status’ for India and a Round table conference to discuss the future constitution.

In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru in Lahore Congress formalize the demand of Purna Swaraj or full Independence for India. It was declared that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as the Independence Day.

The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement

Mahatma Gandhi believed that salt was a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31st January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi Centre letter to Viceroy Irwin with a claim of 11 demands. One of these 11 demands was to abolish salt tax.

The tax on salt and the government’s Monopoly over is production reveal the most cruel side of British rule. Irwin when was not ready to talk about the demands. Thus, Gandhiji took the decision to launch the movement.

The Civil Disobedience Movement

On 12th March 1930, along with 78 followers Gandhi started salt march from Sabarmati Ashram for Dandi, the coastal towns of Gujarat.

On 6th April, he reached Dandi and broke the Salt Law by boiling sea water tank manufacturing salt. This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement. As the movement spread :-

1. foreign clothes were boycotted
2. peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes
3. village officials designed
4. foreign people violated for the slow in many places

However, British government arrested all the leaders including Gandhiji.

Calling off the Civil Disobedience Movement 

During Civil Disobedience Movement, peaceful satyagrahis were attacked. omen and children were beaten and about 100000 people were arrested.

When Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested on April 1930, several violent incidents took place in Peshawar. Seeing this situation, Mahatma Gandhi called of the movement and signed a pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. This was called Gandhi Irwin pact.

Relaunching of Civil Disobedience Movement

In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the Second Round Table Conference but is returned disappointed as the British government refused to release the prisoners.

When he came back to India he found that Congress has been declared illegal and Abdul Gaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were imprisoned.

As a result, Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement. This movement was continued for a year and lost its momentum by the year 1934. Meaning of Swaraj was different for different social groups:-

1. In the countryside rich pigeons committee like the Patidar of Gujarat and the Jat of Uttar Pradesh were supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement. They organised their committee to participate in boycott program. For them the fight for Swaraj was the struggle against high revenue.

2. The poor peasantry found it difficult to pay their rent to the landlord as depression continued. They joined a variety of radical movement often led by a socialist and  communist in the hope that they would not have to pay the rent any further.

3. Association like Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress and Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and industry under the leadership of GD Birla Purushottam Thakur Das Satsang supported the Civil Disobedience Movement in the hope that business restrictions would be lifted.

The Indian merchants and industrialists formed the Indian Industrial and Commerce Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries in 1927.

4. Industrial working classes did not participate in the civil disobedience movement in large numbers except in the Nagpur region.

5. Large number of women participated in this movement. In urban areas women came from high-caste families. In rural areas, women came from rich peace and household. Women were inspired by Gandhiji’s call and they begin to see service to the nation as the sacred duty.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience

Dalit or untouchables and Muslims did not actively participate in this movement. For long time, the Congress had ignored the Dalits because of the fear of Sanatanis, the conservative high caste Hindus.

Gandhiji called Dalits Harijan or the children of God. He believed that Swaraj would not come for hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He organised Satyagraha for them to secure their entry into temples and access to public well, tank, road and schools. Gandhiji urged the upper class to change the mindset regarding the untouchables.

Stand of Dalit Leaders

Dalit leaders wanted different political solution to problems of their community. Dr BR Ambedkar demanded reserved seats in education institutes and a separate electorate that would choose Dalit members for legislative council. Ambedkar organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1938. His views differed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second round table conference as Doctor Ambedkar demanded separate electorate for Dalit.

When the British government admitted Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji strongly opposed it and began a fast unto death. Gandhiji believed that separate electorate for the Dalits would slow down the process of the integration into the main society.

Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhi’s disposition and as a result, Poona Pact of September 1932 was signed. This pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and Central Legislative Council but the voting was to be done by the General Electorate.

Hindu-Muslim Clash

Some of the Muslim political organisations in India rarely participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement after the decline of the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat movement. A large selection of Muslims felt separated from the Congress.

From the mid 1920, Congress came to be more associated with open Hindu religious national parties like the Hindu Mahasabha. As a result, Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and yachts occurred in various cities

In 1937, Sir Mohammed Iqbal, the President of Muslim League demanded the importance of separate electorate for Muslims. He thought that it would safeguard the minority political interest. He justify the Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India.

Difference between Hindu Mahasabha and Muslim League

The Congress and the Muslim League made a first talk again for unity in 1927. It appeared that such a unity could be possible. The only difference in the opinion of Congress and Muslim League was based on the representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.

The leader of the Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted reserved seats for Muslim in Central assembly. He was willing to give up the demand for separate electorate for two condition :-

1. Muslim were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly
2. Representation would be in proportion to population in Muslim dominated provinces like Bengal & Punjab

In 1928, at the all parties conference, MR Jayashankar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed the demands of Jinnah. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals feared the culture and identity of minorities could be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

Nationalist movement spread when people belonging to the different regions and communities began to develop a sense of collective belongingness. It developed through the experience of united struggles. History, fiction, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. It was seen in India during its freedom movement in the following ways:-

1. The Identity of a nation is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 ,when he wrote Vande Mataram for our motherland. Later this song was included in his Novel Anandamath and widely sung by the freedom fighters. The image of Bharat Mata was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore.

2. Indian folk songs and folk tales sung by bard (wandering poets) played an important role for making the idea of nationalism.

3. Rabindranath Tagore and in Madras Natesa Sastri, collected massive collection of folktales and songs which led the movement for folk revival

4. During the Swadeshi Movement, a tricolour flag was designed in Bengal. It had eight Lotuses representing 8 provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

5. In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was a tricolor having a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self help.

Nationalism Through Indian Ancient History

Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was explaining the meaning of history again. The nationalist writers the readers to take pride in India’s great achievement in the past and struggles to change the miserable condition of life under British rule.

Some problems when the past that was being glorified was Hindu and the image is celebrated were taken from Hindu iconography, the people of other communities felt left out.


A growing anger against the colonial government brought together various groups and classes of Indians into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of the 20th century. However, different expectation of diverse group pose a constant threat to unity. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people suffering into organise and united movement for independence. 

nationalism in india notes and questions

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain four points about Gandhiji’s Satyagraha.
Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasize the power of truth and the need to search for truth. In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha.

2. Describe the implication of first world war on the economic and political situation of India.

3. What was the Rowlatt Act? How did it affect the national movement?

What was the Rowlatt Act? How did the Indian show the disapproval towards this act?

4. What were the circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident? Describe in brief the reaction of people immediately after the incident.

5. Why was Non-Cooperation movement started in 1920? Why did Gandhiji call off the movement in 1922?
Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation movement?

6. How did plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj? Explain.

7.  Who was Alluri Sitarama Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the Rebels with Gandhiji’s ideas.

8.  What was the main objective of Simon Commission? Why was the commission rejected by the Indians? Discuss.

9. Explain the reason for the Lahore session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session.
Mention the main content of Indian National Congress in December 1929 held under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.

10. Why did Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement? Give reason.

11. Why did Gandhiji find in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.

12. Describe the role of poor peasantry in the Civil Disobedience Movement?

13. Analyse the role of merchants and the Industrialist in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

14. Mention the efforts of Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights.

15. Explain the role of Ambedkar in uplifting the Dalits or the depressed classes.

16. Describe the cultural process through which nationalism captured peoples imagination.

17. What type of flag was designed during the Swaraj Movement in Bengal. Explain its main features.

Short Answer Type Question Answers


Gandhiji’s contribution towards Satyagraha and his idea of Satyagraha was

a) it emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth

b) suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without being aggressive, the satyagrahis could win the battle.

c) By Satyagraha, one can win the oppressor even by appealing to the conscience. Oppressor should be made to see the truth.

d) By Satyagraha, truth was bound to triumph ultimately. Gandhiji believe that this term of non violence could unite all Indians.


Implication of first world war on economic and political situation of India were

Economic Situation

a) it led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans. It resulted in raising custom duties and introduction of income tax.
b) increase prices of essential commodities lead to extreme hardship for the common people.

Political Situation

a) forced recruitments of villagers in to army caused widespread anger among them
b) there was acute food shortage due to failure of crops and influenza epidemic which resulted into death of millions of people


Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by British government in 1919. It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities and allowed detention of political person without trial for 2 years.

The Rowlatt Act affected the national movement and Indian show their disapproval towards this act in the following ways

a) rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshop and shop were closed down
b) British administration and suppressed the nationalists. As a result local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.


Situations leading to the Jallianwala Bagh incidents are:-

a) Rowlatt Act It was passed by the British government despite of united opposition by Indian members. This act gave enormous power to the government to repress political activities and allow detention of any person without trial for 2 years.

b) Rowlatt Satyagraha Gandhiji wanted non-violent civil disobedience against Rowlatt Act. Rallies were organised in different cities, workers went on strike and shop were closed down.

c) Martial Law British administration impost Martial Law in Amritsar due to popular upsurge. On 13th April, 1919, General Dyer fired at the innocent people who gathered in Jallianwala Bagh killing hundreds.

The reaction of people immediately after the incident was that crowds took to the streets and there was strikes, clashes with police and attacks and government building.


Non-Cooperation movement was started by Gandhiji in 1920 because

a) Gandhiji saw this movement as a portion it unite Muslims and Hindus
b) he wanted a solution on Khilafat issue
c) most important objective was the attainment of Swaraj

Gandhiji called of Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 because

a) the movement became violent. At Chauri-Chaura a peaceful demonstration in bazaar turned into a violent clashes in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
b) Gandhiji felt that the Satyagrah is needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.


The plantation workers in Assam had understood the notion of Swaraj in the following ways

a) for plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of confined space in which they were enclosed. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.

b) Swaraj for plantation workers maintaining a link the village from which they had come. When plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation movement thousands of workers refuse to obey the authorities left the plantation and headed home.

c) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming an everyone would be given land in the own village. The plantation worker, however never did the destination as they were caught by police and brutally beaten up.


Alluri Sitarama Raju was a tribal leader in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. He started a militant Guerrilla Movement in the early 1920s.

Raju inspired the hill people the help people were enraged by the British policy. When the government began forcing them to contribute ‘begar’ for road building, the hill people revolted.

Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi. Inspired by Gandhiji is Non-Cooperation Movement, he persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. He did not believe in non violence he thought that India could be liberated only by the use of force.


The main objective of Simon Commission, constituted under John Simon, was to review the functioning of constitutional system in India and suggest changes in the system.

The commission was boycotted by Indian leaders because :-

a) there was no Indian member in the commission
b) the terms of commission’s appointment did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of Indians was only Swaraj

Thus, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Simon Go back’.


Lahore session of the Congress in 1929 is called the historical session as at this session the Congress President Jawaharlal Nehru passed a resolution of declaring Purna Swaraj in December 1929. In 1929, Viceroy Lord Irwin announced an uncertain Dominion Status to India and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.

The expectation of the Congress were not made by this announcement. At that time liberals and moderates in Congress lost their influence and radicals like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose became more assertive in Congress. After declaring Purna Swaraj or complete Independence, the Congress declared 26 January 1930 as the Independence Day.


Gandhiji launched Civil Disobedience Movement because Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands. Some of these were of general interest and others were specific demands of different classes. However Viceroy Irwin refused the demands. Therefore, he decided to launch the movement.

Another reason for launching the movement was the salt law. Gandhiji believed that the salt tax and the government monopoly over salt production was the most oppressive measures taken by the British government. This law had to be removed. Hence, he broke the salt law by manufacturing salt by boiling water in Dandi and urged people to refuse cooperation with the British. The salt march marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.


Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation because salt is consumed by everyone and is regarded as one of the most essential items of food. By imposing tax on salt in establishing monopoly over its production, the communal power revealed the most oppressive face of them.

Gandhiji thought if any movement could be arranged against the oppression which affected people from all strata, it could unite the nation. He believed ‘salt’ had this power. So, he gave an ultimatum to the British government, but Irwin was not ready to negotiate.

Gandhiji started his famous salt march with his trusted 78 followers from the Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (the coastal town of Gujarat). This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement all over India in this way salt inspired the nation to Rebel against the British.


As economic depression continued the poor peasant found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. Thus, they joined a variety of radical movements. often led by socialist and communist.

They came in huge numbers to support Gandhiji and his followers. It was because of them that Civil Disobedience Movement could become a mass movement.

The launch ‘no rent’ and campaign but it was not supported by Congress. So the relationship between poor peasants and Congress remained uncertain.


They became powerful in the society and wanted to expand their business. So they started opposing colonial policies that restricted their business. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.

Industrialists crystal criticized colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement at its first stage. Most industrialist thought ‘Swaraj’ as a time when colonial restriction did not exist on business world. As a result trade and business would flourish without constraints.

They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.


The efforts of Gandhiji for Harijans were :-

a) Gandhiji organised Satyagraha to secure the entry of the untouchables into temples and access to public well, tanks, roads and schools.

b) Gandhi himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the Bhangi (sweepers) and persuaded the upper caste to change their heart and give up the sin of untouchability.

c) Gandhiji signed Poona Pact with Doctor Ambedkar. It gave the depressed classes reserve seats in provincial and Central legislative councils but they were to be voted on by the general electorate.


Dr BR Ambedkar joined active politics in 1930 and organised the Depressed Classes Association to uplift the Dalits.

He demanded separate electorates for Dalits and reservation of seats in educational institutes for them.

He signed the Poona Pact that gave reserved seats to the depressed classes or Dalits in provincial and Central Legislative Assembly.


They were variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. These history, fiction, songs, popular prints which played a part in the making of nationalism.

Image of Bharat Mata helped to create an image in which people could identify the national devotion to their motherly figure which came to be seen as the evidence of one’s nationalism. This cultural processes helped in spreading of the nationalism as people begin to believe that they all were a part of the same nation and discover a sense of collective belongingness.


At the time of Swadeshi or Swaraj movement, a tricolour flag was designed in Bengal by Mahatma Gandhi. Its feature was that it had eight lotuses representing each province of British India and crescent moon representing Hindu Muslim unity. It also had tri colour (red green white). It had a spinning wheel in the centre.

The flag represented Gandhian ideal of self help and carrying the flag and holding it aloft during procession or marches, became a symbol of defence.

Long Answers Type Questions

1. Who launched the Khilafat movement why was it launched?

2. How did the Non-Cooperation movement spread across the cities in country? Explain its effect on the economic front.

3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the Non-Cooperation Movement? How did this movement unite the country? Explain.

4.  Why did Gandhi start the Civil Disobedience Movement and how did this unite the country?

5. Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement. Support the statement with examples.

6. Explain the role of women in the civil disobedience movement.

Long Answer Type Question Answers


Khilafat movement was a United struggle launched by Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. Khilafat movement was a pan Islamic political protest campaign launched by Muslim in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of First World War.

The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman, Turkey. There was a fear that the power of the spiritual head of the Islamic world would be curtailed. To defend his power Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay, in 1919. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British government to give better treatment to Turkey.


The Non-Cooperation Movement was started by the Congress party in January 1921. Initially this movement started with middle class participation in the cities.

Later this movement spread when thousands of students, teacher and lawyers gave up their institutions and professions and join the movement. This movement began in different cities across the country. The economic effect of Non-Cooperation Movement were:-

a) as foreign goods and foreign clothes were boycotted, the import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922 and it value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees.

b) in many places merchants and traders refused to trade its foreign good and invest into foreign trade.

c) as people discard imported clothes, they started to use Indian clothes. Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms increased.  


Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 because

a) he saw this movement as an opportunity to bring Muslims under a unified national movement. When young Muslim leader like Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali approached him about the possibility of a united movement against the British rule.

b) Gandhiji thought through the Non-Cooperation Movement, the British rule in India would collapse within an year and Swaraj would come.

Thus, the Congress Session in Nagpur in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation programme was finalized and Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement. This movement united the country as:-

a) the Non-Cooperation Movement spread from cities to the countryside. Different section of our society interpreted this movement differently. The name of Gandhiji invoked to sanction all actions and aspirations.

b) in Awadh, peasants under the leadership of Baba Ram Chandra revolted against the talukdars and the landlords who demanded very high rent and different taxes from them. The peasant demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

c) in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, Alluri Sitarama Raju inspired by Gandhiji’s ideas and started militant Guerilla movement for achieving Swaraj.


Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement because Lord Irwin ignored Gandhi’s 11 demands including the abolition of the salt tax. Gandhi’s salt march marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement all over India.

Civil Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country and united different groups in the country as it was widely spread in the following ways:

a) With the spread of the movement, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Village officials resigned from the post. Forest people violated forest law.

b) In the countryside, rich present communities viz Patidars of Gujarat and the Jaats of Uttar Pradesh became a supporter of Civil Disobedience Movement.

c) The poorer peasantry often led by the socialist and communist joined a variety of radical movement for the remission of the unpaid rent to the landlords.

d) Industrialists led by Purushottam Das Thakur Das and GD Birla supported the Civil Disobedience Movement. Moreover railway workers, dock workers, mine workers from Chhota Nagpur and large number of women from all over the India participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.


Launched in 1921 Launched in 1930
Started with middle class participationFirst supported by industrialists like GD Birla and Purshottamdas Thakurdas
Due to Khalifa issues, Muslim community participated in it on large scaleGrowing proximity of the Congress party and Hindu Mahasabha prevented the Muslims to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement
Was withdrawn by Gandhi due to violent incident at Chauri-ChauraWas withdrawn by Gandhi in 1931
Women didn’t participate on large scaleWomen participated on large scale

Final Words

From the above article, you have practiced Class 10 Social Science Unit 1 Chapter 1 Nationalism in India Notes And Questions Answers. We hope that the above-mentioned notes and Q & A for term 2 will surely help you in your exam. 

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