Democratic Resurgence | Chapter 11 Notes

Democratic Resurgence

Democratic Resurgence

Jai Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution 

 Jayaprakash Narayan (11 October 1902 – 8 October 1979) was popularly known as JP or Lok Nayak (The People’s Leader). 

He was an Indian independence activist, theorist, socialist and political leader.

He is also known as the “Hero of Quit India Movement” and he is remembered for leading the opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in mid 1970, he had called this movement a “total revolution”.

His biography, “Jayaprakash”, was written by his friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature, Rambriksh Benipuri. 

In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian award) for his social work. Other awards he won include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965.

Jai Prakash Narayan is known for three key contributions: Fight against Corruption, Principle of Communitarian Socialism and Promote ‘Total Revolution’. 

Jai Prakash Narayan was the first leader in post-independence India who undertook a movement against corruption through the participation of youth, particularly in Gujarat and Bihar. 

He advocated the office of Lokpal against corruption. His principle of Communitarian 

Socialism views India as a society of communities which surrounds three key layers, viz., community, region and rashtra– all combining together as an example of true federation. 

Jai Prakash Narayan advocated transformation of individual, society and state which sought to encompass moral, cultural, economic, political, educational and ecological transformations. 

The essence for transformation according to him revolves around ‘Man’ who could be the real catalyst of change in India. 

Concept of Total Revolution

The call for ‘Total Revolution’ was the last revolutionary quest of Jayaprakash Narayan. It is the only revolution in the post-independence era. 

Corruption, manipulation, exploitation, social discrimination and unemployment provoked Jayaprakash to launch a total revolution in post-independence polity.

On 5th June, 1974 while addressing a mammoth gathering of 5 lakh people in Gandhi Maidan at Patna, he launched the revolutionary programme called Total Revolution. 

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Total revolution was a combination of 7 revolutions:

  • Social Revolution: Establishing equality and brotherhood in the society 
  • Economic Revolution: Decentralization of economy and making efforts to bring about economic equality by taking villages as the unit of development
  • Political Revolution: Ending political corruption, decentralization of politics and making public partner by giving them more rights
  • Cultural Revolution: Defending Indian culture and regeneration of cultural values in common man
  • Educational Revolution: Making education occupation based and changing of education system
  • Spiritual Revolution: Developing moral and spiritual values, and turning materialism towards spirituality
  • Thought Revolution: Revolution in the way of thinking

Causes of Total Revolution

Jayaprakash’s total revolution discovered for the socio-economic, education, moral and political ailment existing in Indian society. 

He gave his note on Total Revolution in his book ‘Prison Diary’. Which was written during his year of arrest and solitary confinement in which he talks about why he called for ‘total revolution’. 

Since independence, he observed, there has been no real change in social, economic and political structure of Indian society. 

Zamindari was abolished, land reform laws have been passed, untouchability has been legally prohibited and so on. 

But villages in most parts of the country were still in the grip of higher castes and bigger and medium land owners. Harijans are burnt alive. 

Adivasis are still the most backward section and money-lenders still cheat and exploit them. 

In Spite of nationalization, there is no element of socialism. There was no economic democracy, which is much talked about. 

The educational system in spite of several committees and commissions remains unchanged.

There has been a steady decline in political, public, and business morality since independence.

Population growth goes up. Poverty was also growing, more than 40 percent of people are below the poverty line. 

The basic necessities of the people were also not getting fulfilled. Therefore there was the need of a systematic change in the society i.e., a total revolution in every sphere and aspect of society came to existence.

Conclusion

Narayan spent the first 25 years of independence as the patron saint of the Praja Socialist Party, the Sarvodaya movement, and even self-determination for Kashmir. 

His most enduring contribution was the movement he led to unseat Mrs. Gandhi, which provoked the Emergency. 

As the eminence grise of the Janata Party, the first non-Congress party run the central government.

Narayan also wrote several books, notably Reconstruction of Indian Polity. He promoted 

Hindu revivalism, but was initially critical of the form of revivalism promoted by the Sangh Parivar.

Ram Manohar Lohiya and Socialism 

Ram Manohar Lohiya was a socialist leader, thinker, freedom fighter and one of  the founders of the Congress Socialist Party after the split in the parent party.

Member of Lok Sabha from 1963-67, founder editor of Mankind, he was known for original contribution to a non European Socialist Theory.

As a political leader, he was best known for his sharp attacks on Nehru, strategy of Non-Congressism, advocacy of reservation of backward castes and opposition to English.

Ram Manohar Lohiya has been one of the main supporter of socialism in India. He promoted the idea of ‘Democratic Socialism’ while associating his socialism with democracy. 

He considered both capitalism and socialism equally irrelevant for Indian society. 

His principle of Democratic Socialism has two objectives – the economic objective in the form of food and housing and the non-economic objective in form of democracy and freedom. 

Lohiya supported Chauburja Rajneeti in which he opines four pillars of politics as well as socialism: Centre, Region, District and Village – all are linked with each other. 

Giving consideration to affirmative action, Lohiya state that the policy of affirmative action should not only be for the downtrodden but also for the women and the non-religious minorities. 

Based on the thought of Democratic Socialism and Chouburja Rajneeti, Lohiya supported a ‘Party of Socialism’ as an attempt of merging all political parties. 

According to Lohiya the Party of Socialism should have three symbols, viz., Spade [prepared to make efforts], Vote [power of voting], and Prison [Willingness to make sacrifices].

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism 

Deendayal Upadhyaya (25 September 1916 – 11 February 1968) was an Indian politician and thinker of right-wing Hindutva ideology, which was adopted by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the leader of political party Bhartiya Jana Sangh (BJS).

Upadhyaya philosophy of ‘Integral Humanism’ and his vision for the rise of modern India, constitute the most comprehensive articulation of what might be described as a BJP ideology.

In 1951, when Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Deendayal became the first general secretary of its UP branch, later he was chosen as all-India general secretary. 

Deendayals ability to take good and quick judgment impressed Dr. Mukherjee and elicited his famous remark: ‘If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India.

After Dr. Mukherjee’s death in 1953, the entire load of nurturing the orphaned organisation and building it up as a nation-wide movement fell on the young shoulders of Deendayal. 

For 15 years, he remained the outfit’s general secretary and built it up, brick by brick. 

Chief Architect of Doctrine of Integral Humanism:

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was an eminent philosopher, sociologist, economist and politician. 

He presented the philosophy of ‘Integral Humanism’ which was intended to present an ‘indigenous socio-economic model’ in which human being remains at the centre of development. 

The aim of Integral Humanism is to ensure distinguished life for every human being while balancing the needs of the individual and society. 

Integral Humanism supports sustainable consumption of natural resources so that those resources can be replenished. 

It enhances not only political but also economic and social democracy and freedom. 

The philosophy of Integral Humanism is based on the following three principles: 

  • Primacy of whole, not part 
  • Supremacy of Dharma 
  • Autonomy of Society 

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya strongly opposed both Western ‘capitalist individualism’ and ‘Marxist socialism’. 

According to Upadhyaya, capitalist and socialist ideologies only consider the needs of the human body and mind.

They are based on materialistic purpose whereas spiritual development is equally considered important for the overall development of human beings which is missing in both capitalism and socialism. 

He said- dharm, kaam, arth, moksh – all four are important. If there is balance between them, there is social equilibrium.

 He also said no society can live without dharma but can live without religion. Dharma is above religion. On the basis of this truth, he presents Integral Humanism. 

Integral humanism consists of visions which was organized around two themes:

  • Morality in politics – can be a game changer
  • Swadeshi and small-scale industrialization in the economy – initiating self-reliance 

Thus, Integral Humanism revolves around the basic themes of harmony, primacy of cultural-national values and discipline. 

This doctrine of Pandit Upadhyay is quite applicable even in the present political and economic situation of India. 

Deendayal’s view was that India is in urgent need of a ‘fresh breeze’ to get rid of the post-independence westernisation. 

He realized Indian intellect had been suffocated, and Indian polity was no more rooted in the traditions of our ancient culture. 

Deendayal, just like all other strong leaders, believed in the concept of Swaraj (Self Governance).

Deendayal Upadhyaya Literary

  • Samrat Chandragupta (1946)Akhand Bharat Kyon? (1952)
  • Bharatiya Arthniti: Vikas Ki Disha (1958)
  • Devaluation: A Great Fall (1966)
  • Political Diary (1968)
  • Integral Humanism
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National Emergence Democratic Upsurges

Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.

Increasing participation of the people in the democratic politics of the country is mainly characterised as democratic upsurge. 

Based on this principle, social scientists of India have characterized three democratic upsurges in post-independence history of India. 

The First Democratic Upsurge

First upsurge could be attributed from the 1950s till 1970s which was based on the participation of Indian adult voters to the democratic politics both at the centre and in states. 

The successful holding of elections for Indian  adults to both Lok Sabha and legislative assemblies all across states on the principle of parliamentary democracy were the testimony of India’s first democratic upsurge.

Second Democratic Upsurge

During the 1980’s, the increasing political participation of the lower classes of the society such as SCs, STs and OBCs has been interpreted by Yogendra Yadav. 

This participation has made Indian politics more accommodative and accessible for these backward classes. 

Although this upsurge has not made any major change in the standard of living of these classes, especially Dalits.

The participation of these classes into the  political platforms gave them the opportunity to strengthen their self- respect and ensure empowerment in the democratic politics of the country. 

The Third Democratic Upsurge 

Third Democratic Upsurge seeks to promote the participation of the youth who constitute a significant chunk of Indian society.

They have emerged as the real game changers in view of their increasing electoral preference for both development and governance in India’s contemporary democratic politics.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Democratic upsurge?

Answer: Increasing participation of the people in the democratic politics of the country is mainly characterised as democratic upsurge. 

What was total revolution?

Answer: The call for ‘Total Revolution’ was the last revolutionary quest of Jayaprakash Narayan. It is the only revolution in the post-independence era. 

Democratic Resurgence Unit 11 CBSE, class 12 Political science notes. This cbse Political Science class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Political Science sample paper, cbse Political Science class 12 previous year paper.

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