Globalization | Chapter 6 Notes

Globalization

globlisation is the process of interaction and international integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. 

It is the interchange of world views, products, capital, ideas, commodities and people across different parts of the world. 

Globalisation basically deals with flows of ideas moving from one part of the world to another and commodities being traded across borders and so on.

The key factor is the worldwide inter connectedness which is created and sustained as a result of these constant flows.

It is a multidimensional concept, which has political, economic and cultural aspects.

It is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration associated with social and cultural aspects. 

Globalization

Causes Of Globalisation

Globalization has accelerated since the 18th century due to advancement of transportation and communication technology, worldwide interconnectedness that is created and sustained.

This increase in global interactions causes  growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas, beliefs, and culture. 

Along with other causes technology affects more than anything else. The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move  from one part of the world to another is majorly due to technological advances.

Examples:

Invention of printing, Integrated Chips (IC) , telephone, internet has revolutionised communication between people in different parts of the world.

Due to faster communication & transportation ideas, commodities and capital move more easily to any part of the globe than ever.

People recognise these mediums is the best to connect to rest of the world

Interconnections are also an important factor of globalisation. Any event that takes place in one part of the world could affect another part of the world.

However, disputes and diplomacy are also reasons for modern globalization.

Consequences of Globalisation

Globalisation has both positive & negative consequences for the people. It affects some societies and some part more than others 

It has brought benefits in developed countries as well as negative effects. 

The positive effects include a number of factors which are education, trade, technology, competition, investments and capital flows, employment, culture, and organization structure.

Positive consequences

Gives Access to a Larger Market

  • Countries and companies have access to a bigger consumer base worldwide. 

Promotes World Peace and Unity

  • It brings governments together so that they can tackle common goals together. 

Better Quality and Variety

  • Due to competition from different countries companies make better quality and variety products. 

Job opportunities

  • Multinational companies provide new jobs and skills worldwide 

More foreign currency

  • MNC’s bring foreign currency to local economies when they buy local products and services. It leads to better economy of the country.

Vibrant culture

  • The mixing of people and cultures enables the sharing of ideas and lifestyles, creating vibrant cultural diversity.

Holiday destinations

  • People can go for holidays in any part of the world  

Best choices for consumers 

  • Consumers enjoy a big choice of goods and services at cheaper prices.

Labour availability

  • Migration of people reduced skilled labour shortages.

Awareness:

  • It helps make people more aware of global issues, such as covid pandemic and global warming, and able to work together to tackle these issues.

Helps government:

  • It help governments to work together to tackle global issues such as a natural disaster.

Negative consequences

Limited approach:

  • It operates mostly with the rich countries, who continue to dominate world trade.

Suppress local business:

  • Multinational companies may drive local companies out of business 

Hamper culture

  • It threatens the local traditions and languages and makes the whole world more fit the western model.

Uneven control:

  • Some nations feel losing control over key decisions and sacrificing their sovereignty.

Negative impact of Migration 

  • Migration of people across the world may cause social tensions and conflict of ideologies.

India and Globalisation

Since colonial  period (British rule), India was  exporting primary goods and raw materials and importing finished goods.

But…

After independence, India decided to be a self dependent country rather than being dependent on others. India started making things on their own on a large scale.

India reduces importing things from outside to enhance the domestic products and Indian industries.

This step generated some major problems. So, in spite of some advancements made in certain areas, sectors such as health, housing and primary education suffer a lot. They did not receive the proper attention they deserved. 

As a result…

India had a slow rate of economic growth.

In 1991, responding to a financial crisis and to the desire for higher rates of economic growth, India began a much needed programme of economic reforms that opened doors for trade and FDI (Foreign Direct Investment).

Resistance to Globalisation

Globalisation has also invited strong criticism from all over the world. In 1999, at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) ministerial meeting, there were big protests at Seattle.

Some were alleging unfair trading practices by the economically powerful states. That makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries more poorer.

Culturally, they are also worried that their traditional culture will be harmed. People will lose their age-old values and ways.

Many anti-globalisation movements are not against the idea of globalisation, but they are opposed to a specific programme of globalisation, which they see as a form of imperialism.

It was state that the interests of the developing world were not given sufficient and required importance in the evolving global economic system. 

The World Social Forum (WSF) is another global platform, which brings together human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalisation. 

India and Resistance to Globalisation

Resistance to globalisation in India has come from political parties as well as through Indian Social Forum. 

Trade unions of industrial workers as well as those representing farmer interests have started protesting against the entry of multinationals.

The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has also generated considerable opposition

Resistance to globalisation has also come from the political right. This has taken the forum to object particularly to various cultural influences.

Keywords To Remember 

  • Globalisation: It is the integration of an economy with the economies of other countries under the process of free flow of trade and capital.
  • World Social Forum: A global platform which brings together a wide coalition of human rights activists, environmentalists and women activists.
  • Privatisation: It allows many private sector companies to produce goods and services in a country.
  • Liberalisation: It signifies relaxation of government rules and regulations relating to activities in the industrial sector.
  • Cultural heterogenization: It signifies cultural differences generated by globalisation.

You have covered a detailed explanation of Globalization. We hope that above mentioned notes of globalisation of world will definitely help you to get pretty good marks in your exam.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Globalization?

Answer: Globlisation is the process of interaction and international integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. 

What are the causes of ?

Answer: Globalization has accelerated since the 18th century due to advancement of transportation and communication technology, worldwide interconnectedness that is created and sustained

What are the effects of globalisation?

Answer: The positive effects include a number of factors which are education, trade, technology, competition, investments and capital flows, employment, culture, and organization structure.

Globalization Unit 6 CBSE, class 12 Political science notes. This cbse Political Science class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Political Science sample paper, cbse Political Science class 12 previous year paper.

Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Political Science notes of unit 6 Globalization. We hope that this crisp and latest Political Science class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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