New Centre Of Power
European Union Integration
European Union integration started in 1992 after the Cold war. This organization comprises 27 European countries.
The European Union was created by the Maastricht Treaty, on November 1, 1993.
Originally the European Union was confined to western Europe. Later EU expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century.
The European Union members are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden.
The United Kingdom, one of the founding members of the EU, left the organization in 2020.
The treaty was specially designed to develop European political
- Economic integration by creating a single currency (the euro)
- A unified foreign and security policy
- Common citizenship rights
- Advancing cooperation in the areas of immigration, asylum, and judicial affairs.
The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of European Union in 1992
European Union Influence:
Economic, political and diplomatic and military influence
- The European Union is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than 12 trillion dollars in 2005 slightly larger than that of the US.
- Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar
- It shares of World Trade is three times larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with US and China
- It’s economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in the Asia and Africa
- It also functions as an important block in international economic organisations such as the World Trade Organisation
Political and Diplomatic
- The European Union also have political and diplomatic influence. Two member of the EU Britain and France hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council
- The European Union includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has influenced some US policies such as the current US positions on Iran’s nuclear program
- Its use of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations rather than enforcement and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and Environment Degradation
- The European Union combined armed forces are the second largest in the world
- It’s total spending on Defence is second after the US
- The European Union member states, Britain and France also have nuclear Arsenal of approximately 552 nuclear warheads
- It is also the world’s second most important source of space and Communications Technology
European Union As Supranational Organisation
As a supranational Organisation, the EU is able to intervene in economic, political and social areas. But in many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often add odds with each other
Britain Prime minister Tony Blair was America’s partner in the Iraq invasion
European Union newer member made up the us-led ‘coalition of the willing’ whereas Germany and France opposed American policy
There is also a deep-seated ‘Euro scepticism’ in some parts of Europe about the EUs integrationist agenda. Thus, Britain’s former Prime Minister’s Margaret Thatcher, kept the UK out of the European market
Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht treaty (related to constitution and currency) and the adoption of Euro (the common currency)
This limits the ability of the European Union to act in matters of foreign relations and defenceClick Here For Higher Exam Preparation Books
(Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
- This region of Asia suffer the economic and political consequences of repeated colonialism, both European and Japanese
- It confronted problems of nation building, the ravages of poverty and economic backwardness and the pressure of to align with one great power during the cold war
ASIAN was established on 1967
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore Thailand,( 6 founding member ) by signing Bangkok declaration
Objectives Of ASIAN
To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development
Promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principle of the UN charter
Over the years Brunei , Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia joined Asian forces.
A form of interaction that is informal, non confrontationist and cooperative
The respect for National sovereignty is created to the functioning of Asian
Asian countries have celebrated what has become known as the Asian Day
In 2003, Asian move along the path of the the European Union by agreeing to establish an Asian community comprising three pillars
- Security community
- Economic community
- Social cultural community
The ASIAN security community was based on the convictions that outstanding territorial dispute should not escalate into armed confrontation
By 2003 ASIAN had several agreements in place by which member states promised to uphold peace, neutrality, Corporation, non-interference and respect for national difference and sovereign rights
ASIAN regional forum, which was established in 1994 is the organisation that carries out coordination, security and foreign policy
ASIAN was and still remains principally an economic association. While ASIAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy. US, European Union and Japan economy is growing much faster than this
Objective of economic community
The objectives of Asian economic committee are to create a common market and production base within Asian States and to aid economic and social development in the region
The economic community would also like to improve the existing Asian dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes
Asian has focused on creating a free trade area (FTA) for investment labour and services
The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTS with Asian
Asian vision 2020 was defined an outward looking role for Asian and international community
This builds on the existing Asian policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. Thus, Asian as mediated the end of the cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation
(South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation )
It begins in 1985
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is a major regional initiative by the South Asian state to evolve Cooperation through multilateral means
Due to persisting political differences SAARC has not had much success. Their members signed the South Asian free trade agreement, which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia
Members of SAFTA
The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) is the free trade arrangement of the SAARC. The agreement came into force in 2006.
Spirit behind SAFTA
A new chapter of peace and cooperation might evolve in South Asia in all the countries and the region allow free trade across the border.
The agreement was signed in 2004 and came into effect on 1st January 2006
Aim Of SAFTA
SAFTA aims at lowering the trade tariff to 20% by 2007.
Some of our neighbors fear that SAFTA can evade their Markets and influence their society and politics – through India’s commercial presence in their society
Some thinks that SAFTA is not worth since India already has bilateral agreements with Bhutan, Nepal and Sri LankaClick Here For College / University Textbooks And References
(Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)
BRICS was founded in 2006 in Russia.
(Inclusion of South Africa in BRICS in 2009)
Primarily to corporate and distribute mutual economic benefits
Non interference in the internal policies of each nation and the mutual equality
The XI conference of the BRICS concluded in Brazil in 2019, chaired the Brazilian president Jair Bolsanaro
China’s economic success since 1978 has been linked to its rise as a great power
Its economics integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it enormous influence in regional affairs
The strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land, mass resources, regional location and political influence adds to its power in significant ways
It is projected to overtake the US as the world largest economy by 2040
China’s economic policy prior to 1970 :
After the Inception of People’s Republic of China in 1949 the economically backward communist China choose to start its link with capitalist world
It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and for a brief period on Soviet aid and advise
The model was to create a state owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture.
As it was short of foreign exchange that it needed in order to buy technology and goods on the world market, China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.
This model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before.
Employment and social welfare was assured to all citizens.
China moved ahead of most developing countries in educating its citizens and ensuring better health for them.
The economy also grew at a respectable rate of 5 to 6%. But annual growth of two to three percent in population meant that economic growth was insufficient to meet the needs of a growing population
An annual growth of two to three percent in population mean that growth was insufficient to meet the needs of a growing population
Agriculture production was not sufficient to generate a surplus for industry.
It’s production of industry was not growing fast enough. International trade was minimum and per capita income was very low
New economic policy (1970)
The Chinese leadership took major policy decisions in the 1970. China ended its political and economic isolation with its establishment of relations with the United State in 1972
Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the four modernizations (agriculture, industry, Science & Technology and military) in 1973
By 1978 the then leader Deng Xiaoping announced the open door policy and economic reforms in China
The Chinese economy, including both industry and Agriculture, grew at a faster rate
The new trading laws and the creation of special economic zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade
China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) anywhere in the world .
It has huge foreign reserves that allow it to make big investments in the countries.
China’s accession to the WTO in 2001 has been a further step in its opening to the outside world.
Drawbacks Of New Economic Policy
Unemployment has risen in China with nearly hundred million people looking for jobs.
Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Environmental degradation and corruption have increased besides a rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents and coastal and inland provinces.
The Policy was to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and Technology from abroad
China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. Chinese did not go for Shock Therapy but opened their economy step by step
The privatization of agriculture in 1982 was followed by the privatization of industries in 1998. Trade barriers were eliminated only in special economic zones where foreign investors set up Enterprises
Benefits Of New Economic policy
The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation
Privatisation of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes
High personal savings in the rural economy lead to an exponential growth in rural industry
Russia has been the largest part of the former Soviet Union even before its disintegration
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union (in the late 1980 and early 1990) Russia emerged as the strong successor of USSR
Russia’s GDP (eleventh in the world currently)
Russia has Reserve of mineral, natural resources, gases make it a powerful country in the Global world
Russia is a nuclear state, have huge stock of sophisticated weapons, permanent member of UN Security Council called P5
21st century India is being seen as an important emerging Global power. The world is experiencing the power and rise of India in a multi dimensional ways.
Economic, cultural, strategic position of the country with a population of 130 crore is very strong
Targeting the goal of a 5 trillion dollar economy. India has a competitive huge market and an ancient inclusive culture.
200 million people of India spreading across the globe impart distinct meaning and salience to India as a new centre of power
Military of India is self sufficient with indigenous nuclear technology make it another nuclear power
Make in India scheme in Technology and Science is another milestone of Indian economy.
Israel has emerged as one of the most powerful nations in the 21st century world in terms of Science and Technology, defence, intelligence besides economy
Situated in the middle of the burning politics of West Asian countries, Israel has reached to the new height of global political standings
It dominates Defence powers, technological innovations, industrialization and agriculture development
Sustaining against adversity is the principle with which a small Jewish zionist Nation i.e, Israel is placed in the contemporary Global politics in general and Arab dominated west asian politics in particular.
Other Chapter Notes
- Class 12 Political Science Syllabus
- Chapter 1: Cold War Era and Non aligned Movement
- Chapter 2: The End of Bipolarity
- Chapter 3: present
- Chapter 4: South Asia and The Contemporary World
- Chapter 5: United Nation And Its Organisations
- Chapter 6: Globalization
- Chapter 7: Challenge Of Nation Building
- Chapter 8: Planned Development
- Chapter 9: India’s Foreign Policy
- Chapter 10: Parties And The Party Systems In India
- Chapter 11: Democratic Resurgence
- Chapter 12: Indian Politics: Trends And Developments
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