New Centres Of Power | Chapter 3 Notes

New Centre Of Power

European Union Integration

European Union integration started in 1992 after the Cold war. This organization comprises 27 European countries.

The European Union was created by the Maastricht Treaty, on November 1, 1993.

Originally the European Union was confined to western Europe. Later EU expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century.

The European Union members are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden.

The United Kingdom, one of the founding members of the EU, left the organization in 2020. 

The treaty was specially designed to develop European political 

  • Economic integration by creating a single currency (the euro) 
  • A unified foreign and security policy  
  • Common citizenship rights  
  • Advancing cooperation in the areas of immigration, asylum, and judicial affairs.

The collapse of Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of European Union in 1992 

European Union Influence:

Economic, political and diplomatic and military influence 


  • The European Union is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than 12 trillion dollars in 2005 slightly larger than that of the US.
  • Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar 
  • It shares of World Trade is three times larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with US and China 
  • It’s economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in the Asia and Africa
  • It also functions as an important block in international economic organisations such as the World Trade Organisation 

Political and Diplomatic 

  • The European Union also have political and diplomatic influence. Two member of the EU Britain and France hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council 
  • The European Union includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has influenced some US policies such as the current US positions on Iran’s nuclear program
  • Its use of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations rather than enforcement and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and Environment Degradation

Military influence 

  • The European Union combined armed forces are the second largest in the world
  • It’s total spending on Defence is second after the US
  • The European Union member states, Britain and France also have nuclear Arsenal of approximately 552 nuclear  warheads 
  • It is also the world’s second most important source of space and Communications Technology

European Union As Supranational Organisation 

As a supranational Organisation, the EU is able to intervene in economic, political and social areas. But in many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often add odds with each other 

Britain Prime minister Tony Blair was America’s partner in the Iraq invasion 

European Union newer member made up the us-led ‘coalition of the willing’ whereas Germany and France opposed American policy 

There is also a deep-seated ‘Euro scepticism’ in some parts of Europe about the EUs integrationist agenda. Thus, Britain’s former Prime Minister’s Margaret Thatcher, kept the UK out of the European market

Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht treaty (related to constitution and currency) and the adoption of Euro (the common currency)

This limits the ability of the European Union to act in matters of foreign relations and defence

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(Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 

New centre of power
  • This region of Asia suffer the economic and political consequences of repeated colonialism, both European and Japanese
  • It confronted problems of nation building, the ravages of poverty and economic backwardness and the pressure of to align with one great power during the cold war

ASIAN was established on 1967

Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore Thailand,( 6 founding member ) by signing Bangkok declaration 

Objectives Of ASIAN

To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development

Promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principle of the UN charter 

Over the years Brunei , Darussalam,  Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia joined Asian forces.

Asian Day

A form of interaction that is informal, non confrontationist and cooperative 

The respect for National sovereignty is created to the functioning of Asian 

Asian countries have celebrated what has become known as the Asian Day

Broadened Objective 

In 2003, Asian move along the path of the the European Union by agreeing to establish an Asian community comprising three pillars 

  • Security community 
  • Economic community 
  • Social cultural community

Security Community

The ASIAN security community was based on the convictions that outstanding territorial dispute should not escalate into armed confrontation 

By 2003 ASIAN had several agreements in place by which member states promised to uphold peace, neutrality, Corporation, non-interference and respect for national difference and sovereign rights

ASIAN regional forum, which was established in 1994 is the organisation that carries out coordination, security and foreign policy 

Economic community

ASIAN was and still remains principally an economic association. While ASIAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy. US, European Union and Japan economy is growing much faster than this 

Objective of economic community 

The objectives of Asian economic committee are to create a common market and production base within Asian States and to aid economic and social development in the region

The economic community would also like to improve the existing Asian dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes 

Asian has focused on creating a free trade area (FTA) for investment labour and services 

The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTS with Asian

Vision 2020

Asian vision 2020 was defined an outward looking role for Asian and international community 

This builds on the existing Asian policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. Thus, Asian as mediated the end of the cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation


(South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation )

SAARC Countries

New centre of power

It begins in 1985

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is a major regional initiative by the South Asian state to evolve Cooperation through multilateral means 

Due to persisting political differences SAARC has not had much success. Their members signed the South Asian free trade agreement, which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia


Members of SAFTA

New centre of power

The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) is the free trade arrangement of the SAARC. The agreement came into force in 2006.

Spirit behind SAFTA

A new chapter of peace and cooperation might evolve in South Asia in all the countries and the region allow free trade across the border. 

The agreement was signed in 2004 and came into effect on 1st January 2006 


SAFTA aims at lowering the trade tariff to 20% by 2007. 

Some of our neighbors fear that SAFTA can evade their Markets and influence their society and politics – through India’s commercial presence in their society

Some thinks that SAFTA is not worth since India already has bilateral agreements with Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka

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(Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) 

New centre of power

BRICS was founded in 2006 in Russia. 

(Inclusion of South Africa in BRICS in 2009) 


Primarily to corporate and distribute mutual economic benefits

Non interference in the internal policies of each nation and the mutual equality 

The XI conference of the BRICS concluded in Brazil in 2019,  chaired the Brazilian president Jair Bolsanaro



China’s economic success since 1978 has been linked to its rise as a great power 

Its economics integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it enormous influence in regional affairs

The strength of its economy, together with other factors such as population, land, mass resources, regional location and political influence adds to its power in significant ways

It is projected to overtake the US as the world largest economy by 2040

China’s economic policy prior to 1970 :

After the Inception of People’s Republic of China in 1949 the economically backward communist China choose to start its link with capitalist world

It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and for a brief period on Soviet aid and advise 

The model was to create a state owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture. 

As it was short of foreign exchange that it needed in order to buy technology and goods on the world market, China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.


This model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before. 

Employment and social welfare was assured to all citizens. 

China moved ahead of most developing countries in educating its citizens and ensuring better health for them. 

The economy also grew at a respectable rate of 5 to 6%. But annual growth of two to three percent in population meant that economic growth was insufficient to meet the needs of a growing population


An annual growth of two to three percent in population mean that growth was insufficient to meet the needs of a growing population 

Agriculture production was not sufficient to generate a surplus for industry.

It’s production of industry was not growing fast enough. International trade was minimum and per capita income was very low

New economic policy (1970)

The Chinese leadership took major policy decisions in the 1970. China ended its political and economic isolation with its establishment of relations with the United State in 1972 

Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the four modernizations (agriculture, industry, Science & Technology and military) in 1973 

By 1978 the then leader Deng Xiaoping announced the open door policy and economic reforms in China

The Chinese economy, including both industry and Agriculture, grew at a faster rate 

The new trading laws and the creation of special economic zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade 

China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) anywhere in the world . 

It has huge foreign reserves that allow it to make big investments in the countries.  

China’s accession to the WTO in 2001 has been a further step in its opening to the outside world.

Drawbacks Of New Economic Policy

Unemployment has risen in China with nearly hundred million people looking for jobs.

Female employment and conditions of work  are as bad as in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries.

Environmental degradation and corruption have increased besides a rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents and coastal and inland provinces.

The Policy was to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and Technology from abroad 

China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. Chinese did not go for Shock Therapy but opened their economy step by step

The privatization of agriculture in 1982 was followed by the privatization of industries in 1998. Trade barriers were eliminated only in special economic zones where foreign investors set up Enterprises

Benefits Of New Economic policy

The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation 

Privatisation of agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes

High personal savings in the rural economy lead to an exponential growth in rural industry


Russia has been the largest part of the former Soviet Union even before its disintegration

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union (in the late 1980 and early 1990) Russia emerged as the strong successor of USSR

Russia’s GDP (eleventh in the world currently) 

Russia has Reserve of mineral, natural resources, gases make it a powerful country in the Global world

Russia is a nuclear state, have huge stock of sophisticated weapons, permanent member of UN Security Council called P5


21st century India is being seen as an important emerging Global power. The world is experiencing the power and rise of India in a multi dimensional ways. 

Economic, cultural, strategic position of the country with a population of 130 crore is very strong 


Targeting the goal of a 5 trillion dollar economy. India has a competitive huge market and an ancient inclusive culture. 

200 million people of India spreading across the globe impart distinct meaning and salience to India as a new centre of power 


Military of India is self sufficient with indigenous nuclear technology make it another nuclear power 

Make in India scheme in Technology and Science is another milestone of Indian economy.


Israel has emerged as one of the most powerful nations in the 21st century world in terms of Science and Technology, defence, intelligence besides economy

Situated in the middle of the burning politics of West Asian countries, Israel has reached to the new height of global political standings 

It dominates Defence powers, technological innovations, industrialization and agriculture development 

Sustaining against adversity is the principle with which a small Jewish zionist Nation i.e, Israel is placed in the contemporary Global politics in general and Arab dominated west asian politics in particular.

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New Centre Of Power Unit 3 CBSE, class 12 Political science notes. This cbse Political Science class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Political Science sample paper, cbse Political Science class 12 previous year paper.

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