United Nations And Its Organisation | Chapter 5 Notes

United Nations And Its Organisation

united nations and its organizations Chapter highlights the role of international organisations. India’s involvement in the UN & its view of Security Council reforms, and other transnational organisations in dealing with the world.

International Organization

The Union of International Associations, a coordinating body. There are more than 250 international governmental organizations (IGOs) are present, and approximately 6,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), whose members are associations or individuals.

International organizations serve many diverse functions:

  • Collecting information and monitoring trends  
  • Delivering services and aid 
  • Providing forums for bargaining 
  • Settling disputes 

International Governmental Organizations range in size from three members to more than 185. List of some important organizations:

  • International Monetary Fund (Headquarters: Washington, D.C.)
  • United Nations (Headquarters: New York, NY)
  • World Trade Organization (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • World Health Organization (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • ILO (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • European Union
  • World Bank (Headquarters: Washington, D.C.)
  • International Maritime Organization
  • World Intellectual Property Organization (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • FAO (Headquarters: Rome, Italy)
  • NATO (Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium)
  • International Organization for Standardization (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • United Nations Development Programme (Headquarters: New York, NY)
  • World Meteorological Organization
  • UNICEF (Headquarters: New York, NY)
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (Headquarters: Vienna, Austria)
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Headquarters: Singapore)
  • OECD (Headquarters: Paris, France)
  • International Telecommunication Union (Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland)
  • Organization of American States (Headquarters: Washington, D.C.)
  • Amnesty International
  • UNESCO (Headquarters: Paris, France)
  • International Chamber of Commerce (Headquarters: Paris, France)
  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (Headquarters: Montreal, Canada)

United Nations 

United Nations And Its Organisation

After the second world war The United Nations was formed by 51 countries in 1945. Antoinio Guterres is the present UN secretary General.

United Nation is an international organization committed to :

  • Maintaining international peace and security, 
  • Developing friendly relations among nations 
  • Promoting social progress and provide better living standards and human rights.
  • Harmonizing the actions of nations

The United Nations (UN) is the largest  intergovernmental organization which is the most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful in the world.

The headquarters of the UN is in New York City. Its other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague.

Currently there are 193 Member States, who express their views, through the :

  • General Assembly 
  • The Security Council 
  • The Economic and Social Council 
  • Other bodies and committees.

The UN is the one place on Earth where all the world’s nations can gather together, discuss common problems, and find shared solutions that benefit all of humanity.

The major work of the United Nations is to reach every corner of the globe. Although UN is best known for: 

  • Peacekeeping
  • Peacebuilding
  • Conflict prevention 
  • Humanitarian assistance

There are many other ways the United Nations affect our lives and make the world a better place. 

The Organization works on a broad range of fundamental issues in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer world for this and future generations. Certain Issues are:

  • Sustainable environment 
  • Refugees protection
  • Disaster relief
  • Counter terrorism
  • Disarmament 
  • Non-proliferation
  • Promoting democracy
  • Human rights
  • Gender equality 
  • Advancement of women
  • Economic and social development
  • International health
  • Clearing landmines
  • Expanding food production

The UN 5 Main Objectives

  • It keep peace throughout the world
  • It develop friendly relations among nations
  • It help all the nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms
  • It harmonizing the actions of nations 
  • It helps in Epidemics and any type of crisis in the world.

4 Pillars Of United Nations 

Peace and Security

The Security Council, which is the main organ of UN, responsible for maintaining international peace and security

Human Rights

The UN Charter has faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person

Rule of Law

The UN establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained

Development

The fourth declared aim of the United Nations is to promote social progress and better standards of life in greater freedom

The principal organ of the UN

1.     General Assembly

2.     Security Council

3.     International Court of Justice

4.     Secretariat

5.     Economic and Social council

6.     Trusteeship Council

General Assembly

  • The General Assembly is the main organ of the United Nations
  • Representatives from all Member States has one vote
  • It elects the members for the other structures and agencies of the UN.
  • It deliberates and discuss over major international issues.
  • It also takes all major decisions related to member nations.

Security Council

  • The Security council’s primary responsibility is to maintain international peace and security.
  • It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote
  • 5 permanent members (with veto rights), ten elected by the General Assembly for 2 year terms.
  • All member states are bind to comply with Council decisions.
  • To prevent international conflicts 
  • To facilitate cooperation among states.
  • To improve and develop the prospects of social and economic development in the world.

International Court of Justice

  • There are 15 judges elected for 9 years by absolute majority in both the General Assembly and the Security council.
  • The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The Court is settling legal disputes between States and giving advisory opinions to the United Nations

Secretariat

  • Secretariat staff representing all nationalities working in duty stations all over the world
  • Staff carries out the day to day work of the Organization
  • International staff gives services to the other principal organs.
  • Headed by the Secretary- General, who is appointed by the General Assembly for a five-year renewable term.
  • The UN Secretariat, consisting of staff representing all nationalities working in duty stations all over the world, carries out the day to day work of the Organization.

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 

  • Established in June 1945
  • Major responsibility is to coordinate the economic and social fields of the organization
  • It discussed  and debated on environmental challenges 

Trusteeship Council

  • The Trusteeship Council was established to supervise the administration of Trust Territories — former colonies or dependent territories — which were placed under the International Trusteeship System.
  • It make sure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government or independence.

Key Agencies

UNESCO

(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

It is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group. It has founded in 1945. 

It is a specialised agency of the United Nations, which aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, the sciences, and culture.

UNESCO’s mission is to advance peace, sustainable development and human rights by facilitating collaboration and dialogue among nations.

It pursues these objective through five major program areas: 

  • Education
  • Natural sciences
  • Social/human sciences
  • Culture 
  • Communication/information

It is governed by the General Conference, member states and associate members, which meets twice in a year to set the agency’s programmes and the budget. 

WHO

(World Health Organization)

The WHO was established by constitution on 7 April 1948. This day is commemorated as World Health Day.

It is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. 

The WHO main objective as “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health”

WHO headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland, with six semi-autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.

The WHO’s broad mandate includes Advocating for universal healthcare

  • Monitoring public health risks
  • Coordinating responses to health emergencies
  • Promoting human health and well being.

It provides 

  • Technical assistance to countries
  • Sets international health standards guidelines
  • Collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey.

The WHO has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox, the near-eradication of polio, and development of an Ebola vaccine. 

Its current work priorities are to eradicate communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS, Ebola, COVID-19, malaria and tuberculosis; non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

ILO

(International Labour Organization)

The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations

It’s work standard is to advance social and economic justice through setting international labour standards. ILO members include poorer and less developed countrie.

The functions of the ILO

  • To develop and promote standards for national legislation 
  • To protect and improve working conditions and standards of living. 
  • To provides technical assistance in social policy 
  • Fosters cooperative organizations and rural industries
  • Assemble labour statistics and conducts research on social problems like unemployment and underemployment, labour and industrial relations, and technological change 
  • It helps to protect the rights of international migrants and organized labour.

Reform of the UN after the Cold War

  • Reform of the organisation’s structures and processes.
  • The biggest discussion has been on the functioning of the Security Council & demand for an increase in the UN Security Council’s permanent & non- permanent membership.
  • Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organization.
  • Some countries and experts want theOrganisation to work in peace and security missions, others want development and humanitarian work.

On January 1997, the UN Secretary (General Kofi Annan) initiated an inquiry for new permanent and non- permanent members that fulfill: 

  • A major economic power
  • A major military power
  • Contributor to the UN budget
  • A big nation in terms of its population
  • A nation that respects democracy and human rights
  • A country should represent the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic system, and culture.

Veto Power

For taking any decisions, the Security Council proceeds by voting. All members of Council have one vote. However, the permanent members have a special  power, they can vote in a negative manner.

Their vote can neglect the decision taken by all other permanent and non- permanent members. This negative vote is known as  Veto Power 

After WW 2, the strongest countries were given the privileged position & became permanent members.

Jurisdiction of the UN

The UN member-states met in 2005 to celebrate the anniversary and review the situation.

  • Creation of a Peace building Commission
  • International community takes the responsibility in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
  • Establishment of a Human Rights Council, which is operational since 19 June 2006
  • Had agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Create a Democracy fund.
  • Wind up the Trusteeship Council.

India and The UN Reforms

  • India always believes that a strengthened and revitalised UN is desirable in the changing world.
  • India supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states.

MCQ & Syllabus Notes

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Political Science

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is veto power ?

For taking any decisions, the Security Council proceeds by voting. All members of Council have one vote. However, the permanent members have a special  power, they can vote in a negative manner.

Which are the key agencies of United Nation?

Answer: UNESCO, WHO, ILO

When was United Nation Formed?

Answer: After the second world war The United Nations was formed by 51 countries in 1945. Antoinio Guterres is the present UN secretary General.

United Nations And Its Organisation Unit 5 CBSE, class 12 Political science notes. This cbse Political Science class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Political Science sample paper, cbse Political Science class 12 previous year paper.

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