Changing Trends & Career in Physical Education | Chapter 1 Notes 2022-23

Changing trends in Physical Education have increased its importance, as modern physical education stresses the balanced development of body and mind.

Meaning & Definition

Physical education is an important part of general education. It involves physical activities which help to achieve wholesome development of individuals. 

It helps to develop total personality related to the physical, mental, social, and emotional development of individual education 

Physical education helps to develop good health and leads the man towards progress and wellness. It leads to balanced development.

J. B. Nash: “It is the field of education which deals with the big muscle activities and their related responses”. 

R. Cassidy: “Physical education is the sum of changes in the individual caused by experience involving motor activity”. 

Delbert: “Physical education is the sum of those experiences which comes to the individual through movement”.

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Aims & Objectives

Aim

The aim of Physical Education is optimum wholesome qualities development in a person. It emphasizes the balanced development of physical, mental, social, intellectual, and emotional behavior. 

J.F.Williams:  ” Aim of Physical Education is complete living through Wholesome development of human personality”.

Objectives

To achieve the ultimate aim there are many objectives which are as follows:

Physical Development: 

Our body is a kind of machine which grows and develops with regular physical activities. Physical development develops our neuromuscular responses which lead to maximum organic development. 

Thus, regular physical activities must be performed to develop optimum growth and development.

Psychological Development:

Psychological development is related to positive thoughts, ideas, behavior, attitude, conduct, responses, etc. Which improves the psychological balance of an individual.

This objective enables a person to overcome any challenges.

Social Development:

Physical Education programs provide good opportunities and practical experience to develop social processes. 

By participating in sports and games a player follows the rules, regulations, traditions, and laws of society. 

They develop Qualities like friendship, honesty, sincerity, tolerance, adjustment, leadership, etc.

Emotional Development:

It is an important part of the optimum development of a man’s personality. Emotions like love, hate, anger, aggressiveness, anxiety, etc must be expressed in a controlled manner. Physical Education provides good opportunities to practice these.

Changing Trends In Sports

Playing Surface, Wearable Gears, Sports Equipment, Technological Advancement

(A) Playing surface

Throughout history, different sports happen and are played on various different surfaces. The surfaces upon which a sport is played will have a significant impact on the player’s experience. 

Different surfaces have been used for different purposes; some will allow games to be played under conditions that would otherwise render them unplayable and others will provide a higher level of comfort for the players.

Many of today’s popular sports have been played for 100 years. Traditionally, sports were played on natural gas surfaces. Maintenance of grass turf surfaces involves different activities including mowing, irrigation, and control of weeds, pests, and disease. 

In 1960 some sporting organizations started using artificial pitches. Artificial plain surfaces were created with the intent of increasing the durability and versatility of the playing surfaces thereby enabling multi-sport use and providing an indoor surface that was relatively easy to maintain. 

But artificial grass has its limited downside: limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, and some heightened health and safety concerns for children.

Artificial turf has gained recognition from several respected sporting bodies. The areas in which improvement is needed include players’ comfort, the potential impact on player health, and the visual and physical similarities to natural pitches. 

Once these issues have been tackled, synthetic sporting surfaces will probably become more popular as their benefits will outweigh their weaknesses. They can be used to boost your performance, provide a useful surface in difficult climates and reduce the cost of maintenance.

(B) Wearable gears and sports equipment 

In recent years, technology has had a gigantic impact on almost every aspect of our society. Technology has touched everything: balls, bats, rackets, skates, even wheelchairs.

Technology has entirely revolutionized the way apparel and equipment are designed. From shoes and uniforms to gloves, helmets, and pads. Sporting equipment is now more hi-tech and high-functioning.

I. Wearable gears: Wearable Technology has changed the way sports are evaluated. Today. We are not depending on human eyes to make judgments in the movement. Thanks to the rise of everything from GPS trackers to RFID chips with the help of which Sports officials can calculate scores with instant, impartial and quantifiable data. 

There are many types of wearable technology in sports. Smartwatches are popular with both professional athletes and amateur fitness enthusiasts, and they are suitable for a wide range of activities that can make use of calorie, step, distance, pulse, and heart rate tracking.

Other, more specialized wearable technology examples include things like smart clothing. These items can be designed with specific activities in mind. For example, runners can invest in shocks that are built with a textile pressure sensor that will calculate whether they are striking with their heels or the balls of their feet.

Advanced medical technology can take the form of everything from smart rings to sensor-field shirts and leggings. There are even head-mounted displays that can be built into helmets to keep race car drivers in radio contact with their pit crews.

The benefits of wearable technology in sports are numerous. Not only can they track health and fitness data to optimize athletic performance, but they can also be used to prevent injuries by identifying danger zones and predicting risky movements or patterns. When used by sports officials, they can also ensure accuracy during games, matches, and performances.

Technology in sports science has grown quite sophisticated and high-end fitness products can count steps, measure heart rates and even deliver electrocardiogram results to linked smartphones. Innovators are constantly pushing the boundaries of what their products can do.

(C) Sports Equipment

When designing sports equipment, the design has to enhance performance, be user-friendly and be safer in order to beat out previous competitors. Some of the equipment which has changed or improved in design have been mentioned below:

Clothing: In swimming, earlier nylon and lycra were used which enable swimsuits to be more form-fitting and less water absorbent. Now new suits are being developed to reduce drag and increase performance. 

In other sports new clothing is being designed to wick sweat away from the body by evaporation instead of absorbing it.

Shoes: Lighter and flatter track shoes are designed to find the perfect balance of optimal grip and comfort. Through years of testing and experience, athletes and sports scientists have worked to find the perfect blend of lightweight shoes and optimal grip that allows an athlete to hit the corners harder and faster.

Tennis Racquets: Earlier wooden rackets were used. In the 1960s, metal rackets were introduced which increased racquet lifespan and stiffness although not increased weight. In the 1980s wooden rackets became obsolete and brands instead made graphite rackets which became lighter and lighter also improving performance.

Protective Equipment: From helmets to cleats, new technology in sports equipment has revolutionized the way that manufacturers keep athletes safe from injury. Helmet manufacturers have produced helmets with technologically advanced materials to produce safe and more comfortable helmets. 

(C) Technological Advancement:

Technology has taken over today’s modern world. Many professional and amateur sports bodies have embraced new technology to protect athletes, engage fans, track world records and make it easier to officiate the games. 

From the wearable sports technology market to the heightened fan experience at sporting events, the future of sports is increasingly digital. Some of the technological advancement that has been introduced is given below:

I. Instant Replay: Instant replay is an example of the remarkable technology being used in sports today. With this technology, officials are able to slow down and reexamine what happened during a play, which provides a much-needed second perspective for controversial sports moments. 

Instant replay is used in games like baseball, football, cricket, rugby, and soccer. It is even used in combat sports and mixed martial arts.

II. Sensor Tools: Sensor tools are often used to analyze whether a goal is valid. They are also used in cases where the naked eye cannot truly tell if a ball went past the goal line or if a player committed a foul or other offense. 

Different sports use varying sensor tools. For example, cricket’s Hawk-eye technology analysis is used to determine if the ball smashed into the bat before it was caught.

III. Timing System: When timing a race, the stopwatch has been replaced by more accurate timing systems; this means that differences in reaction time no longer affect the precision and consistency of racing events.

IV. RFID Chips: This is one of the best examples of technology in sports. RFID chips are used to time individual contestants in an event. They are tiny devices with build-in antennas that relay wireless signals to tracking stations. RFID chips are often used in long-distance races to help broadcasters and viewers track the exact location of contestants during a race.

V. Equipment Development: One of the biggest improvements in sporting tech is smart helmets. New helmet technology offers sensor and magnet tech built-in, which is able to detect and disperse force, thus decreasing the chances of head injury.

By doing Physical Education courses, people can become:

1. Teaching or Coaching

A career in sports has been mainly focused on teaching and coaching in schools, colleges, and universities. 

Teachers are involved in teaching and organizing physical activity programs based on theory and practical syllabus of health and physical education, extramural and preparation of teams. 

Coaches are potentially sportspersons or players with talent in fundamentals, techniques, and rules of competitive sports or games. 

Coaches are responsible for the overall preparation, and performance of teams. Coaches are also employed in government-run centers, sporting clubs, holiday resorts, etc., for special sports. Some may also be self-employed in their own sports training centers.

2. Dietician

They plan the diet for a player or a team so that they eat proper and balanced food according to their physical work. In the present time, dieticians are considered an important part of modern spas, beauty parlors, and also in hospitals, and health centers.

3. Sports Medicine Physician

The sports-related injuries are different in nature. Sports Medicine Physicians can give better treatment to sportspeople after understanding the seriousness of sports-related injuries. 

A good sportsperson can become a better physician. It is the duty of the sports medicine physician to cure the sportsperson so as to enable him/her to come back to the mainstream.

4. Sports Administration Related Careers

An administrator in sports can be a Sports Director, Sports Officer, Head of Department, General Manager, Executive Director, Supervisor, etc. The areas that they take care of are related to finance, scheduling equipment, facilities, public relations, and many more. 

They also undertake the responsibility of implementing curriculum, monitoring staff, office, managing sports information, scholarship and promotion, supervision of coaches and various competitions, organizing conferences, etc. 

5. Performance Related Careers

Performance-related careers in sports are of two types, one is professional performers in sports, and the second is sports officials. 

The sports performers play as an individual or in a team for organizations on a contract or on a payroll basis either for a specified period or otherwise. 

Sports officials like referees, umpires, judges, etc., officiate the match or tournament on a contract or on a pay-roll basis either for a specified period or otherwise. 

6. Communication Related Careers

Sports communication includes sportswriter, sports editor, sports publisher, sports photographer, painter/ artist, broadcaster, sports information director, sports statisticians, etc.

i. Sports Writers

There is a separate section devoted to sports in all the newspapers, magazines, periodicals, bulletins, etc.  For writing these sections, sportswriters are required. 

The job of a sports writer is to cover the stories related to the vast world of sports on the basis of performance, team selection, policies, management, results, and other related matters to write a sports column.

ii. Sports Publishers

Sports Publishers are responsible for all the publication units including the quality, content, sales, and promotion of books, etc. As there are various textbooks, coaching books, sports magazines, audio-visual material, journals, and periodicals, the publication also has reputed value as a career in sports.

iii. Photography

As the scope of photography in sports is not very vast, people may opt for it as a part-time/full-time career in sports. Individuals with artistic ability, skill, and experience in painting and drawing sports events can choose this profession.

iv.  T.V. or Radio Reporters

The duties of broadcasters are to present sports programs on T.V. or radio live from the stadium or playfield. They also present commentary summaries, reviews, and sports news on T.V. and radio. Sometimes they anchor special sports programs, do interactions or take interviews with sports personalities. 

7. Sales and Management Related Careers

This profession includes sports marketing executives, sports events managers, and sports competition organizations associated with sports equipment, material, etc. The ability to interact with customers and convince them that the product or event is suitable for their needs.

Physical education also helps in opting for other careers such as defense, para-force, police service, etc.

Khelo India Programme

Changing Trends in Physical Education

Sports and fitness in one’s life have a big importance. By playing sports one can inculcate team spirit, and develop strategic & analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting, and risk-taking. 

A fit and healthy individual leads to a healthy society and a strong nation. Sports and games are a very important component of the overall development of our nation. Over the last few years, India has made steady progress in the field of sports which needs to be showcased on a global platform. 

It is the time we must inspire young talent, and give them top-notch infrastructure and training of the highest level. We need to inculcate a habit of participation in sports that enables players to demonstrate their true potential. 

The Khelo India programme has been introduced in the year 2017-18 by the Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs. It revives and develops the sports culture in India at the grass-root level by building a strong framework for all major sports played in our country.

Talented players identified by the High-Powered Committee will be provided annual financial assistance of INR 5 lakh per annum for 8 years. In the Khelo India School Games, which are a part of the Khelo India program, under-17 athletes participate across 16 disciplines, 

16 disciplines are Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Basketball, Boxing, Football, Gymnastics, Hockey, Judo, Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, Shooting, Swimming, Volleyball, Weightlifting, and Wrestling.

Components of Khelo India

Following are the components of Khelo India:

  • Playfield Development
  • Geo-tagging of playfields and sports infrastructure.
  • Community coaching development
  • State-level Khelo India centers
  • Annual sports competition
  • Talent search and development
  • Utilization and creation / up-gradation of sports infrastructure
  • Support to Nationals/Regional/ State sports Academies
  • Physical Fitness of school going, children
  • Sports for women.
  • Promotion of sports among a person with a disability
  • Sports for peace and development
  • Promotion of rural and indigenous/ tribal games

Fit India Movement

Fit-India Mission encourages people to become part of the Fit India Movement by inculcating at least 30-60 minutes of physical activities in their day-to-day lives. 

The mission of the Movement is to bring about behavioral changes and move toward a more physically active lifestyle

FIT-INDIA Movement was launched on 29th August 2019 by the Honourable Prime Minister with a view to making fitness an integral part of our daily lives. 

The mission of the Movement is to bring about behavioral changes and move toward a more physically active lifestyle. Towards achieving this mission, Fit India proposes to undertake various initiatives and conduct many events.

Objectives of Fit-India Movement

  • To promote fitness as easy, fun, and free.
  • To spread awareness on fitness and various physical activities that promote fitness through focused campaigns.
  • To encourage indigenous sports.
  • To make fitness reach every school, college/university, panchayat/village, etc.
  • To create a platform for citizens of India to share information, drive awareness, and encourage sharing of personal fitness stories.

Competitions in Various Sports

Changing trends in physical education

At National And International level

Athletics

👉 National Athletics Championship: Every year Athletics competitions are organized by the Athletic Federation.

👉 Inter-State Athletic Championship: Participants from different states are participating in this competition, organized by the Athletic Federation of India.

👉 State Athletic Championship: Participants from various districts, take part in this championship every year, organized by the State Athletic association.

👉 Inter-University Athletic Championship: This national-level championship is organized by various universities for university students.

👉 World Athletics Championship: This world athletic championship organizes after every two years, organized by the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF). The next championship will be in the USA in 2022.

Basketball

Senior & Junior National Basketball Championship: This championship is organized by the Basketball Federation of India (BFI) for men and women every year. State Basketball Championship: Organised by State Basketball Association every year for men and women.

Other championships are:
Olympic games
European cup, Asia cup, BC Gupta Trophy, Federation cup, etc.

Badminton

There are many Badminton Championship held, which is organized by the Badminton World Federation (BWF) and Badminton Association of India (BFI)

World Cup, Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, European Cup, China Cup, World Junior Championship, Olympic games, All England Championship, National Badminton Championship.

Cricket

There are many Cricket Championships held at the National and International levels, which are organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).

World cup, Asia cup, Ranji Trophy, CK Naidu Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Irani Trophy, etc.

Football

Many international and national football championships are held regularly, which are organized by the Federation International Football Association (FIFA) and All India Football Federation (AIFF).

World cup, European Cup, Subroto Cup, Federation Cup, Santosh Trophy, I League 

Hockey

International and national hockey championships are organised by International Hockey Federation (FIH) and Indian Hockey Federation (IHF).

Aga Khan Trophy, Champions Trophy, Bombay Gold Cup, World Cup.

Swimming

The International Swimming Federation and Swimming Federation of India organize many swimming championships every year.

World Swimming Championship, National Swimming Championship, All India Inter-University Swimming Championship, etc.

Lawn Tennis

International and National Tennis championships are organized by the International Tennis Association and All India Tennis Association.

National Tennis Championship, Nehru cup Tennis, India Federation Cup, US Open, Australian open, Devi’s cup.

Volleyball

International Volleyball Federation and Volleyball Federation of India organize various tournaments.

World Volleyball Championship, Federation cup, Asia cup, Olympic Volleyball Championship, Asian Games Volleyball Championship.


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Changing Trends In Physical Education chapter 1 CBSE, class 11 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 11 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 11 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 11 previous year paper.

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