Physical Education & Sports For CWSN | Chapter 4 Notes 2024

Last updated on July 20th, 2024 at 07:24 pm

Children With Special Needs- Divyang (CWSN)  

Concept of Disability

Disability

Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

It is a functional limitation or restriction of an individual’s ability to perform an activity. It means disability creates obstruction in the normal function or movement of an individual. It limits and restricts the activity of a person.

sports for cwsn

Types of Disability, Its Causes And Nature

Physical Disability & Intellectual Disability

Some individuals are disabled right at birth, others get disabled due to some incident during the course of their lives. Some disabilities are as follows:

Intellectual Disability

Intellectual disability is a condition of mental retardation which occurs due to the damage in brain cells for various known and unknown reasons. Mental and physical development becomes relatively lesser due to this condition. All mentally retarded children are not alike. The levels and severity of the problems are different for everyone.

Characteristics of Mental Retardation

  • A mentally-retarded child does not easily learn any activity like other children.
  • Such children feel difficulty in sitting, changing their position using their hands, etc.
  • They respond very late to the surrounding incidents and to the speech of others.
  • The child does not express his feelings in such a way that other people can understand him easily.
  • The child can only remember any event or activity for a very short span of time.
  • Abnormality is seen in their walking and performing activities on their own.
  • These children have difficulty in taking control of their emotions.
  • Sometimes deformities are seen in their face, e.g., jaws, teeth, head, salivation, etc.
  • Such a child cannot concentrate on any individual or task for a long time.
  • It is difficult for them to understand other’s points of view except for daily orders.
  • They have problems in synthesizing news and information.

Down Syndrome:

It is a disorder causing developmental and intellectual delay. It is a genetic disorder that occurs when abnormal cell division causes an extra third copy of chromosome 21.

Hence, it is also known as trisomy 21. A person with Down syndrome may have flat facial features, a small head and ears, a short neck, a bulging tongue, and poor muscle tone.

Physical Disability

Physical impairment disrupts the child’s activities. He may find difficulty in walking, running, getting up, sitting, standing, or not able to perform his own work, etc. This disability can be related to sensory organs as well as external organs of the child’s body. 

Below are some examples of physical disabilities:

1. Cerebral palsy: It is known as paralysis of the brain, due to which the condition and the speed of the body are affected and consequently locomotor disability is caused

2. Spina bifida: It is also known as final biceps this abnormality is by birth in which there is a deformity in the backbone

3. Congenital anomalies: Some children have congenital deformities sometimes. When both feet or one foot of a child is folded inwards at the time of birth.

4. Muscular Dystrophy: It is a kind of locomotor deformity in which the child is born normal and after 3 years of birth the deformity starts in the child’s muscles

5. Poliomyelitis: This disability is due to poliovirus infection. Polio virus damages the anterior horn cell of the backbone a result of which disability occurs.

6. Leprosy-cured person: The sensitivity of the organs affected by Leprosy is eliminated. Due to a lack of sensibility, the person works negligently.

7. Undeveloped Organ: In this other organs grow while the growth of the leg or hand stops


Types of Disability

Physical Disability
It is a limitation of individuals’ physical functioning which may be related to the upper or lower body. These are generally related to musculoskeletal, circulatory, respiratory, and nervous systems. 
Disability in mobility can be either inborn or acquired with age.

Sensory Disability 
Sensory impairment is when one of the senses; sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste is no longer normal.

⏩ Spinal cord disability: It can lead to lifelong disability. It generally occurs due to severe accidents.

⏩ Brain Disability: This type of disability occurs due to brain injury from external forces.

⏩ Vision Disability: This is related to vision problems that may be inborn or happen afterward. Vision disability may be mild, moderate, severe, or blindness.

⏩ Hearing Disability: It includes people who are completely or partially deaf. People who are partially deaf can use hearing aids. It can be evident at birth or occur later in life.

Cognitive or Learning Disability:
It is a neurological disorder. It can affect an individual’s ability to read, speak, and write.

⏩ Memory Disorder: An individual who has auditory problems or difficulty in remembering something.

⏩ Dyslexia: Individuals have difficulties in writing, reading, and speaking.

Intellectual Disability:
This disability is related to the limitations of intellectual functioning (such as reasoning, and learning) and Adaptive behavior ( such as social and practical skills).

Disability Etiquettes

1.Be respectful and treat everyone with kindness: People with disabilities deserve the same respect and consideration as anyone else. Use polite language and avoid making assumptions or stereotypes about their abilities.

    2. Use person-first language: Instead of labeling someone by their disability, put the person first. For example, say “a person with a disability” instead of “a disabled person.”

    3. Ask before offering help: If you encounter someone with a disability who appears to need assistance, always ask before jumping in to help. Respect their independence and allow them to decide if they need assistance.

    4. Be mindful of physical space: Some disabilities may require more space to maneuver, so try not to block wheelchair ramps or designated accessible areas.

    5. Avoid using the wrong language: Be cautious with phrases that may unintentionally offend people with disabilities. Refrain from using terms like “crippled” or “handicapped.”

    6. Communicate directly: When speaking to someone with a disability, address them directly rather than talking to their companion or caregiver. Treat them like you would anyone else.

    7. Ask if you’re unsure: If you’re unsure about how to interact with someone with a disability or what accommodations they might need, feel free to politely ask. Most people will appreciate your genuine interest in understanding their needs.

    8. Respect personal boundaries: Just like with anyone else, respect personal space and avoid touching or leaning on mobility aids without permission.

    9. Be patient and listen: Some individuals with disabilities might communicate differently or require more time to express themselves. Be patient and give them the opportunity to fully participate in conversations.

    10. Recognize invisible disabilities: Not all disabilities are visible. Keep in mind that someone may have a disability that is not immediately apparent, so avoid making assumptions based on appearances alone.

    11. Advocate for accessibility: Encourage and support initiatives that promote accessibility in public spaces, transportation, and workplaces, making it easier for people with disabilities to participate fully in society.

    Aim And Objective of Adaptive Physical Education

    Adaptive Physical Education is an individualized program of instruction created for students with disabilities that enable success in Physical Education.

    Adaptive Physical Education provides a safe, personally satisfying, and successful experience for students of varying abilities. 

    It is a diversified program and includes developmental and remedial activities.

    Aim: Adaptive Physical Education aims to ensure that the child is provided with physical education services that meet his/her needs, and that aim to achieve physical, mental, emotional, and social growth.

    Objectives

    • To develop students’ motor skills
    • To develop self-esteem and promote sportsmanship
    • To develop social qualities for adjustment in the society
    • To provide an opportunity to learn and to participate in several appropriate recreational and leisure time sports and activities.
    • To develop organic and neuromuscular systems
    • To develop knowledge and an appreciation of his physical and mental limitations.
    • To help students to understand and appreciate a variety of sports that can enjoy as non-participants or spectators.

    Organizations promoting Adaptive Sports

    Special Olympic Bharat

    It is an organization approved by the National Sports Federation and Special Olympic International for the development of persons with intellectual disabilities. 

    It is a movement that uses sports to reform the lives of disabled people. It gives training and coaching to build interest in sports, skill perfection, social interaction, communication skills, talent, and leadership abilities in intellectually disabled persons.

    Paralympic

    Paralympic Games involve Athletes with a range of disabilities including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, vision impairment, and intellectual impairment.

    Deaflympics

    The Deaflympics are an international event sanctioned by the IOC at which deaf athletes compete at an elite sports level. It provides opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports.

    The deaf Olympic participants cannot be guided by sounds like the starter’s guns or referee whistles.

    Role Of Various Professionals For Children With Special Needs

    Physical Education and sports for CWSN

    Role of Various Professionals

    Role of counselor

    A school counselor helps children in all ways, be it academic, social, behavioral, or emotional.
    They work in collaboration with the parents, teachers, and special educators to create a healthy learning environment that makes them feel comfortable.

    Role of Occupational Therapist

    The Occupational Therapist will provide education and resources to teachers and parents about how children typically develop motor skills and how to promote this development in the classroom and at home. 
    They help teachers learn to recognize and help children who may have motor skill problems which are making some daily activities a challenge to learn.

    Role of Physiotherapist

    Physiotherapy is an allied healthcare profession that promotes the health and well-being of all.
    It aims to help maximize movement and functions when someone is affected by injury, illness, developmental delay or other disability.

    Role of Physical Education Teacher

    Physical Education Teachers are responsible for the education of primary and secondary school students in physical activity and psychomotor learning.
    He is responsible for the overall wellness and development of students.
    PET evaluates the student’s performance, attitude, and level of Physical Fitness. Students are evaluated in periodic tests that give teachers a better picture of students’ overall health and level of athletic skill.

    Role of Speech Therapist

    Speech and language therapy is concerned with the identification, assessment, and support of speech, language, and communication of children.
    They work closely with parents, teachers, nurses, occupational therapists, and doctors. Speech and language therapists have an important role in supporting schools to meet the needs of children.

    Role of Special Educator:

    A special educator develops appropriate activities, curriculum, and methods of implementation for children with special needs so that the children may able to participate easily

    Disorder

    The disorder is a problem that disrupts normal physical or mental functions. It is a state of confusion that interrupts normal function. It is an abnormality of physical and mental states like psychiatric disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. The disorder may result from a genetic failure in development or from external factors such as poison, trauma, or disease.

    Types of Disorders

    • ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) 
    • SPD ( Sensory Processing Disorder) 
    • ASD ( Autism Spectrum Disorder)
    • ODD ( Oppositional Defiant Disorder)
    • OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

    ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) 

    It is a brain disorder that is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior. Individuals may have some problems focusing on activities. They may be hyperactive or may be unable to control their impulses. It has three types

    • Inattention: Children lack concentration in any work, have difficulty sustaining focus, and are unorganized.
    • Hyperactivity: Children are unusually or abnormally active. They have impulsive actions, a shorter attention span, and are easily distracted.
    • Impulsive: Impulsivity is the tendency to act without thinking about the consequences.

    Causes

    • Genetic factors are one of the main cause
    • Children with low birth weight
    • When a baby’s brain is damaged before or after birth
    • Lack of discipline in the family 
    • Addiction to a certain diet 
    • Exposure to toxic substances at an early age.

    SPD ( Sensory Processing Disorder )

    It is a condition in which the brain has difficulty in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. It is some sort of neurological jam that prevents certain parts of the brain from receiving the information required to interpret sensory information accurately.

    Sensory processing disorder may affect our senses such as touch, sight, taste, or movement. In this disorder, the person may scream when touched, or dive under the table after hearing the sound. In some cases, they remain unresponsive to anything around them. Even he may fail to give a response to Extreme heat or cold for pain.

    Causes

    • Genetic factors are one of the main causes
    • Low birth weight is another cause
    • Excessive restrictions in early life
    • Have differences in brain structure

    ASD ( Autism Spectrum Disorder )

    It includes a wide range and levels of disability. Individual ability to function in society, at school, at work, or in other areas of life gets hurt. 

    Some people are mildly impaired, while others are severely disabled. Early treatment and proper care can reduce difficulties while helping them to learn new skills and make the most of their strength.

    People with an ASD often have these characteristics: 

    Ongoing social problems include difficulty in communicating and interacting with others and obsessive interests.

    Repetitive behavior as well as Limited interest in activities. 

    Difficulties in language, social skills, and behavior

    Causes

    • Biological or genetic factors: Something happens during fetal development. Children may inherit problematic genes from their parents.
    • Environmental Factors: High levels of pollution and pesticides in food may also be one of the reasons.
    • Brain Development: The connection between the brain cells are not proper, which may be another cause.

    ODD ( Oppositional Defiant Disorder )

    It is a condition in which a child displays an ongoing pattern of angry or irritable mood and argumentative, hostile behavior directed towards authority. 

    Individuals behave like rebels, argue with adults, and refuse to obey any rules. They exhibit angry outbursts and have a hard time controlling their anger or aggression. They have difficulty making friends and have low esteem. They have negativity in their behavior.

    Causes

    • Biological or genetic causes: Children may develop ODD if their parents have a history of ADHD or ODD.
    • Physical Factors: when an imbalance exists and messages are not communicated properly with other parts of the brain, the symptoms may occur.
    • Psychological Factors: Children may develop this if they have bad relationships with parents or neglectful parents.
    • Social Factors: It may happen due to poverty, chaotic environment in the family, and exposure to violence

    OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder )

    It is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly or have certain thoughts repeatedly. They have a fear of contamination by germs, getting dirty, making mistakes, being embarrassed, etc. They do some common activities which include repeated hand washing, repeated counting, checking things over and over again, repeating certain words, and so on.

    Causes

    • Serotonin which sends messages in the brain sends improper messages from one part of the Brain to others, which may cause OCD

    Frequently Asked Question

    Q1. What is Adaptive Physical Education?

    Answer: Adaptive Physical Education is an individualized program of instruction created for students with disabilities that enable success in Physical Education.

    Q2. What is the concept of Inclusion?

    Answer: Inclusion is an educational practice where every person can participate equally in all social processes. It is an approach to educating students with special educational needs.

    Q3. What is a special Olympic Bharat?

    Answer: It is the organization approved by the National Sports Federation and Special Olympic International for the development of persons with intellectual disabilities. 

    Physical Education & Sports for CWSN chapter 4 CBSE, class 11 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 11 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

    You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 11 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 11 previous year paper.

    Final Words

    From the above article, you must have learned about ncert cbse class 11 Physical Education notes of chapter 4 Physical Education & Sports for CWSN. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 11 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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