[Latest] Children & Women In Sports | Chapter 2 Notes 2024

Last updated on July 21st, 2024 at 01:30 pm

Children & Women In Sports

Children and women in sports are very important for any country’s sports development.

For getting higher performance in the field of sports children and women need to be strong enough both physically and mentally. They need proper motor development.

Motor development is the development of a child’s bones, muscles, and ability to move around and manipulate his environment. 

Various motor movements are essential for children for everyday life activities such as sitting, walking, running, climbing, catching, holding, jumping, throwing, etc.

It refers to the changes in movement behavior. It is a development of physical fitness, along with large muscles, small muscles, bones, and nervous system of the body.

It provides perfection in action and graceful movement.

Motor development in children takes place in two parts.

Gross Motor Development: It involves the development of large or big muscles in the body. Big muscles help them to stand, sit, run, jump, etc.

Fine Motor Development: It is the development of small muscles in the body. Small muscles help them to do fine work like catching, throwing, picking, kicking, dancing, writing, etc.

Factors Affecting Motor Development

Heredity Factors affect children’s motor development. 

Nutritious food and a balanced diet promote good motor development 

Immunization: If mother and child both are immunized at the proper time it leads to good motor development 

Environment: A clean, safe, and natural environment is good for development

Psychological feedback and motivation: children should be encouraged and motivated to perform physical activity by which motor development is improved.

Disability and disease: It reduces perfection in motor skills. 

Regular practice: With regular practice motor development improves

Body weight: Those who are overweight and obese have less motor development 

Mental ability: Development depends upon mental level.  

Gender: There is a difference in motor development between boys and girls 

Rest and relaxation: Proper rest and relaxation should be considered for motor development

Proper training: Proper coaching and training are required to develop motor skills. 
Interest and attitude: The interest of a child is one of the important factors in the development

Multi Activity participation promotes faster motor development

Exercise Guidelines of  WHO for different age groups.

In today’s fast-paced world, it’s essential to take care of our physical and mental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) understands this importance and has provided exercise guidelines for different age groups to help everyone stay active and vibrant.

For Children (aged 5 to 17):

Engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity daily.

Include a variety of activities like playing sports, dancing, cycling, or simply running around with friends.

Limit screen time and encourage outdoor play for overall well-being.

For Adults (aged 18 to 64):

Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity throughout the week.

Additionally, muscle-strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups should be performed at least two days a week.

Embrace activities like brisk walking, jogging, swimming, and strength training to keep fit and energized.

For Older Adults (aged 65 and above):

Adults in this age group should follow the same guidelines as younger adults, depending on their physical abilities.

Focus on activities that improve balance, flexibility, and muscle strength to prevent falls and maintain independence.

It’s important to consult a healthcare provider before starting any new exercise regimen, especially if there are any underlying health conditions.

Remember, staying active doesn’t have to be overwhelming; even small steps toward being more active can make a significant difference. Always listen to your body and find activities that you genuinely enjoy. Exercise not only benefits your physical health but also boosts your mood and reduces stress.

Common Postural Deformities

Children and women in sports

Spinal Curvature

This type of deformity is related to the vertebral column. This deformity develops by carrying excessive weight beyond capacity or weak muscles cause curvature of spinal curvature.

There are three types of spinal deformities

  • Kyphosis
  • Lordosis
  • Scoliosis


This is a problem of the thoracic cage and clavicle spine. So there is an abnormal curvature in the spine at the front. It causes a hump at the back of the body.


  • Some major Causes are malnutrition, illness, insufficient exercise, rickets, carrying heavy loads on the shoulder, unsuitable furniture, and weak muscles.

Corrective Measures

  • Sit in the chair such that your back touches the chair
  • Keep a pillow under your back while sleeping
  • Do some back bending Yoga Asanas regularly like chakrasana, dhanurasana and bhujangasana


It is the inward curvature of the spine. In this deformity, Lumber-Spine bends in front beyond the normal level. The abdomen is ahead of the body.


? Imbalance diet, improper environment, improper development of muscles, obesity, and diseases affecting vertebra 

Corrective Measures

  • All forward bending asanas and exercises are helpful for correcting Lordosis
  • Do Yoga such as Paschimottanasana, halasana
  • Do forward bending
  • Alternate toe touching


It is the problem of the spine, where the vertebral column bends sideward. Scoliosis causes one shoulder down and another to rise up. 

Body weight is shifted towards sidewards and it causes a lot of pressure on one side of the foot.


Differences in leg length, , lifting weights towards one side, wrong standing postures.

Corrective Measures

  • Sideward bending exercises. It should be done on the opposite side of the curve.
  • Hold the horizontal bar and swing your body to the sides
  • Do chin ups

Three lower extremity deformities:

Knock Knee

In this deformity knees knock or touch each other while standing, walking and running. The gap between the ankles goes on increasing. 


Lack of balance diet specially vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous. It may happen due to Rickets, Weak legs, Obesity during childhood, overweight, etc.

Corrective Measures

  • Pillow exercise: The pillow is kept between the legs and presses the legs.
  • Outward walking: Walk over the outer edges of the foot
  • Do some Yoga like Padmasana, Vriksh asana, Akarn dhanur asana.

Bow Legs

In this deformity legs bend outward. The space between the knees widens up.

Bow legs caused a lot of pressure over the lateral edges of feet.


Rickets, Early childhood walking with weight, Obesity, Faulty shoes

Corrective Measures

  • Take balance diet
  • Walk with toes inward
  • Do Yoga such as Garud Asana, Ardhmatseyendra Asana

Flat Foot

It is an abnormal condition of the foot in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole touching (complete or near complete) the ground. The children with flatfoot feel pain in their feet when they walk or run.


Weak muscles, Poor quality shoes, Overweight, Obesity, Prolonged standing

Corrective Measures

  • Walking on heels
  • Rope skipping
  • Jumping on toes
  • Good quality shoes
  • Writing with foot

Women’s Participation In Sports- Physical, Psychological, and Social Benefits

Women are equally important in society, and take part in social activities. Today, modern society started accepting women’s participation in sports competitions.

The trend of women’s participation in sports has improved in Indian society and thus the number of women participating in sports has increased. 

In urban areas, female participation in sports is higher than in rural areas. 

Today, the Indian society has recognized many Indian sportswomen like Mary Kom, Saina Nehwal, Sania Mirza, PV Sindhu, Jwala Datta, etc

Physical, Psychological, and Social benefits of women’s participation in sports

Participating in sports can be incredibly empowering for women, offering a wide range of benefits that extend beyond just physical health. Here are some of the key advantages:

Physical Benefits

1. Improved Fitness: Engaging in sports activities helps women build strength, endurance, and flexibility, contributing to overall physical fitness.

2. Weight Management: Sports can aid in weight management by burning calories and promoting a healthy body composition.

3. Stronger Bones: Regular physical activity, especially weight-bearing sports, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

4. Better Cardiovascular Health: Sports get the heart pumping, improving cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of heart diseases.

Psychological Benefits

1. Boosted Confidence: Accomplishing personal goals and honing skills in sports can boost self-esteem and confidence.

2. Stress Relief: Sports provide a healthy outlet for stress and tension, promoting relaxation and mental well-being.

3. Improved Mental Focus: Regular exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function, concentration, and memory.

4. Mood Enhancement: Physical activity triggers the release of endorphins, the “feel-good” hormones, leading to improved mood and reduced anxiety.

Social Benefits

1. Teamwork and Communication: Team sports foster teamwork and communication skills, promoting positive relationships and collaboration.

2. Empowerment: Participation in sports breaks down gender stereotypes and empowers women to challenge societal norms.

3. Social Support: Joining sports clubs or teams provides a sense of community and social support, which is vital for mental health.

4. Leadership Opportunities: Sports can offer women leadership roles, helping them develop valuable leadership qualities.

In conclusion, participating in sports can be a transformative experience for women, offering physical fitness, psychological well-being, and social growth. So, let’s encourage and support women in embracing sports and all the wonderful benefits they bring.

Causes of Less Participation Of Indian Women In Sports

  • Gender inequality & social attitude
  • No parental encouragement
  • Traditional society
  • Less motivation and inspiration
  • Women constraining other women
  • Lack of plans and initiatives for sports for women by the Government
  • Male dominant culture
  • Less availability of women coaches
  • No independent games facilities for women
  • More emphasis on study
  • Less competition
  • Economic Factors
  • Social Customs and Rights
  • Low Health Consciousness
  • Less Media Coverage
  • Fewer spectators interest
  • Lack of Incentives & Career

Special consideration (Menarche and menstrual dysfunction)

Women undergo many physiological and psychological changes in their life which have to be accepted in a positive way.


Menarche is the beginning of the menstrual cycle or first menstrual bleeding in females, which is considered the central event of female puberty.

After the onset of menarche female experiences many Physiological and anatomical changes like increased body mass, secretion of estrogen, gain in height, widening of pelvic region, etc.

It occurs between 12 to 14 years of age. It varies due to biological, genetical, environmental, and nutritional factors.

Women with delayed menarche may get more success in some sports like gymnastics. Those who have early menarche may have an advantage in sports like swimming and rowing.

Menstrual Dysfunction

It is a disorder or irregular condition of a woman’s menstrual cycle. It also can defined as abnormal bleeding during the menstrual cycle. The normal cycle varies from 21 to 35 days. These irregularities are generally higher in athletes than in non-athletic women.

During the period of menarche and menstrual dysfunction, females can participate in moderate physical activities without any complications.

Heavy training should be done with special care of personal cleanliness and hygiene factors. If complications arise then women can consult with a gynecologist.

Female Athlete Triad

It is the syndrome of females which includes Osteoporosis, Amenorrhea, and Eating disorders. which is known as Triad. These traid can be serious with lifelong health consequences.

The symptoms of traid are fatigue, low body weight than required, frequent injuries, loss of fitness, low self-esteem, cessation of menstruation, etc.


It is the weakening of bone due to loss of bone mineral density. Low levels of estrogen and poor nutrition especially lower calcium intake lead to Osteoporosis.


  • Insufficient calcium and vitamin D in the diet
  • Hormone level decrease
  • Menstrual dysfunction for more than six months
  • Eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia.


Amenorrhea is the absence of the menstruation cycle. It is often defined as missing one or more menstrual periods.
Amenorrhea also refers to the absence of menstruation in someone who has not had a period by age 15.


The main causes of primary amenorrhea relate to hormone levels, although anatomical problems also can cause amenorrhea.

Eating Disorder

Many girls or women try to lose weight in an unethical way in order to improve their performance or look good, which leads to serious health problems.

There are two types of eating disorders.

Anorexia Nervosa

It is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about weight and what they eat. Anorexia is characterized by a distorted body structure, with an unwanted fear of being overweight.

People trying to maintain a below-normal weight through starvation or too much exercise.

Bulimia Nervosa

In this disorder female athletes eat excessive amount of food and vomit intentionally in order to not gaining weight.

It is a serious eating disorder marked by bingeing. Bulimia is a potentially life-threatening eating disorder.
People take dangerous steps to avoid weight gain like vomiting (purging), excessive exercising, or fasting.

Children and women in sports chapter 5 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Lordosis is

a. Inward curvature

b. Outward curvature

c. Sideward curvature

2. There are ——- types of motor development

a. 3

b. 4

c. 2

d. 5

3. Which is not a factor affecting Motor development

a. Biological factor

b. Social factor

c. Nutrition

d. Physical activities

4. Childhood stage starts from

a. 3 to 10 years

b. 2 to 9 years

c. 3 to 12 years

d. 3 to 11 years

5. Which one is not a deformity related to lower extremity

a. Scoliosis

b. Flat Foot

c. Bow leg

d. Knock knee

Short And Long Questions And Answers

1. Suggest physical exercises for childhood and adulthood.    (2020) 

Ans. Physical exercises for children and adults can be simple activities that are correlated to age, sex, weight and body structure. 

All children and adults can indulge in simple activities like brisk walking or running and play sports, both outdoors and indoors, like badminton, volleyball, and cricket, or go for a swim.

More athletic persons can undertake adventure sports such as mountain climbing and rafting, etc.

2. Give your outlook on the participation of Indian women in sports. (2020) 

Ans. Participation of women in sports in India may be a new phenomenon but is a very desirable development.

While in most countries and sports, males have been more active, the increasing participation of women in sports helps remove gender inequality. 

Over the last few decades, female Indian sportspersons have brought laurels to our country ranging from badminton, tennis, and cricket to athletics and shooting. 

We now have women champions such as Saina Nehwal and P.V. Sindhu in badminton, Heena Sindhu in shooting, and Geeta Phogat in wrestling. 

In cricket also, Indian women are doing very well and with increasing support from the government and the public, it will get even better. 

More scholarships, more funding, and better spectator participation will help encourage more participation of Indian women in sports.

3. Which type of deformity is “Kyphosis”?    (2019)

Ans. Kyphosis is a spinal disorder in which an excessive outward curve of the spine results in an abnormal rounding of the upper back. The condition is sometimes known as “roundback” or, in the case of a severe curve, as “hunchback” 

4. What is motor development?    (2019)

Ans. Motor development is the process of learning how to use muscles in the body to move. This is also defined as the development of movement.

5. Among females, what type of Menstrual Dysfunction is called Amenorrhoea?    (2019) 

Ans. Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

6. What do you mean by “Bulimia”?    (2019)

Ans. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person has regular episodes of eating a very large amount of food (bingeing) during which the person feels a loss of control over eating.

The person then uses different ways, such as vomiting or laxatives (purging), to prevent weight gain.

7. On the basis of physiological parameters, mention any two gender differences. (2019) 

Ans. The prominent physiological gender differences are that in females, there is the occurrence of menarche and menstruation.

8. What is Anorexia nervosa?          (2019)

Ans. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, characterized by low weight, food restriction, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin.

9. What is a flat foot?    (2019)

Ans. A flat foot is a condition when the normal curvature of the feet is missing and the feet fall flat fully on the ground.

10. Define osteoporosis.    (2019)

Ans. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased.

11. What are the causes of osteoporosis?    (2019) 

Ans. The causes of osteoporosis are:

• Dietary deficiency of calcium and vitamin D, besides other vitamins and minerals like magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin K, vitamin B and vitamin B12, leads to osteoporosis.

• Lack of exercise also leads to osteoporosis.

• When women reach menopause, their estrogen levels drop significantly which leads to osteoporosis

• Medical conditions that can lead to osteoporosis include intestinal problems like celiac disease and

• Certain medications may cause osteoporosis including steroids.

• The chemicals found in cigarettes make it more difficult for the body to use calcium. They also impact estrogen’s ability to protect the bones. Excessive alcohol consumption also negatively impacts the

12. Write briefly about the prevention and management of “Anorexia”. (2019) 

Ans. Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. 

Sufferers of this condition focus on controlling their weight and shape mostly by taking extreme steps that tend to significantly interfere with their lives.

People with Anorexia usually severely restrict the amount of food they eat. They may also try to exercise excessively.

This often leads to emotional and behavioral issues involving an unrealistic perception of body weight and an extremely strong fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Most sufferers appear extremely thin.

Physical symptoms of this eating disorder include extreme weight loss, lack of sleep, frequent fainting, thin hair and absence of menstruation. Constipation and abdominal pain are common. 

Emotional and behavioral symptoms include attempts to lose weight by severely restricting food intake through dieting, fasting or exercising excessively.

Other symptoms include preoccupation with food, frequently skipping meals or refusing to eat and eating only a few food items and denial of hunger or making excuses for not eating. 

Treatment includes psychological counseling, medication and sometimes hospitalization along with nutritional counseling.

13. Explain ‘Flat Foot’ and ‘Knock Knees’ and also suggest corrective measures for both postural deformities.                 (2019)

Ans. Flat Foot is when the normal curvature of the feet is missing and the feet fall flat fully on the ground. Weight distribution is altered and causes premature tiring of feet. 

Also there is strain on knees, hip and spine. Flat foot can be corrected by exercises like toe jumping and rope skipping. Standing on uneven balls and half balls is also recommended. 

Pushing the toes against the wall forcefully and then relaxing helps as does use of an arch support in footwear.  

Knock Knees are when the knees touch each other before the feet can close together in an erect posture. The knees strike each other while running and walking fast. Knock knees can hamper participative sports. 

Prevention of knock knees is easier than correction. Since this deformity is skeletal in origin, in most cases correction is difficult with increasing age. 

Horse riding is suggested as a good corrective exercise. Side raises and plank exercises are also helpful. Use of corrective calipers is also recommended especially at the pre-puberty stage. Yoga asanas such as Padmasana and Gomukhasana are recommended.

14. Write in detail the symptoms and causes of amenorrhoea. (2019) 

Ans. Amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation—one or more missed menstrual periods. Besides stopped periods, one can have pelvic pain, headaches, vision changes and acne. 

Amenorrhoea can occur for a variety of reasons. It can be caused by natural reasons, such as pregnancy, breast-feeding and menopause.

Medications for various health issues can also cause this condition. Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhoea like low body weight, excessive exercise, stress and hormonal imbalance in diseases like thyroid, etc. Problems with the reproductive organs like structural abnormalities also lead to amenorrhoea.

15. How can physical activities be corrective measures for common postural deformities?    (2019) 

Ans. There are several deformities that give rise to abnormal curvature in the vertebral column or any other part of the body. 

These deformities include Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis, Round Shoulders, Knock Knees’ Bow Legs and Flat Feet. Many of these deformities are amenable to correction with the help of supervised physical exercises. 

To correct Kyphosis, the sufferer has to be conscious about the posture they have while sitting, standing, or walking. A few corrective yoga exercises are Halasana, Paschimottanasana or slowly stretching the body parts so that the hollow back problem can be removed. Abdominal muscle strengthening exercises also help. 

For improving flat foot toes it is recommended to walk on toes, pick up objects with toes, make alphabets in sand with toes, and stretch Flat Foot may also need shoes with arc.   

For knock knees, horse riding and sometimes use of calipers is done. Bruegger’s exercises and bench press help with rounded shoulders. For bow legs, yoga recommends Garudasana, Ardhamatsyendrasana and Ardha Chakrasana.                         (2017)

16. What is Lordosis? Explain.

Ans. Lordosis is the inward curvature of the lumbar and cervical regions of the human spine.

17. Define motor development.    (2017) 

Ans. Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles and the ability to move around. Motor development can be divided into two sections: gross motor development and fine motor development.

18. What is menopause?    (2017) 

Ans. Menopause is the time when a woman’s menstrual periods stop permanently.

19. What is Osteoporosis? Explain factors that lead to Osteoporosis in women. (2017) 

Ans. Osteoporosis, which literally means porous bone, is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. 

The leading cause of osteoporosis is a lack of certain hormones, particularly estrogen, in women especially those older than 60 years of age. Lower estrogen levels increase the risk of osteoporosis in women.

20. What are the causes of ‘Flat Foot’ and ‘Knock Knees’? Suggest physical activities as corrective measures for these deformities.    (2017) 

Ans. A flat foot is a deformity when the arches on the inside of the feet are flattened. Knock knees are angular deformities at the knee in which while standing the knees touch but the ankles do not.

Flat feet need treatment only if they cause discomfort. The most common symptom of flat feet is pain in the feet. This also results in shoes wearing down unevenly or more quickly than usual, especially on one side, which can lead to further injuries. 

Exercises suggested to improve flat feet include walking barefoot on uneven ground or wet sand. If it becomes very troublesome, correction pads inside the footwear can be used.

Measures to prevent knock knees include taking care of the nutritional needs of the growing child and ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet and exposure to sunlight. 

Once the knock knee is established, surgical correction may be warranted in later ages. Yoga recommends Padmasana and Gomukhasana regularly for knocking knees.

21. Exercises have numerous physiological and physical benefits for children. Explain in detail.    (2017) 

Ans. Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, fit children study and sleep better.

The Physical advantages active children have include stronger muscles and bones, leaner bodies, less risk of becoming overweight, a lower chance of getting type 2 diabetes and lower blood pressure. 

The Physiological advantages include improved energy levels, allowing them to be more active and enhanced emotional well-being during childhood as well as during adulthood. Exercise induces a sense of calmness and well-being.

22. State the common postural deformities.    (2017) 

Ans. There are three basic types of postural deformities. These are kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis. Kyphosis is an exaggerated curve of the thoracic region whereas Lordosis is an increased curve of the lumbar spine. Scoliosis is an increased sideways curve of the spine.

22. How can women’s participation in sports and games be encouraged in India? Explain. (2017)

Ans. To encourage the participation of women in sports, we need to include a few specific measures. These include

Promoting role models and giving them enhanced recognition. Social Discrimination against women has to be removed to make sporting activities acceptable to them. 

Fitness levels have to be enhanced as well and adequate safety for women has to be provided. Trained coaches that empathize with women athletes are needed as well as encouraging spectator interest by providing media coverage of female events and sponsorship of championships. 

This will improve awareness in families and parents so that they encourage their female children to pursue sports.

24. What do you mean by correct posture? Explain the standing and sitting postures. What are the causes of bad posture? (2017) 

Ans. Posture is the position in which we hold our body while standing, sitting, or lying down. Good posture involves training the body to stand, walk, sit and lie so as to place the least strain on muscles and ligaments while moving or performing weight-bearing activities. 

The correct sitting position is to sit up with your back straight and your shoulders back. Your buttocks should touch the back of your chair. All three normal back curves should be present while sitting. 

You can use a small, rolled-up towel or a lumbar roll to help maintain the normal curves in your back.

Poor posture may be caused by many factors, including previous injuries, disease, poor muscle tone or emotional stress. 

A sedentary lifestyle can reduce muscle tone and strength and lead to bad posture. Sore, aching feet too have a negative effect on posture. In fact, one may encounter numerous factors in life that can get in the way of good posture. 

Bad posture could be due to an injury, a disease or because of genetics or a combination of these factors.

25. What are the motor development stages in children? (2017) 

Ans. Motor development means the physical growth and strengthening of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move and touch their surroundings.

A child’s motor development falls into two categories: fine motor and gross motor development. It is further divided into three stages: the cognitive stage, the associative stage, and the autonomous stage.

26. Explain the term ‘Menarche’.    (2016) 

Ans. Menarche is the occurrence of the first menstrual period in the female adolescent.

27. What are the causes of bad postures? Write in brief. (2016) 

Ans. Poor posture may be caused due to many factors, including previous injuries, disease, poor muscle tone, or emotional stress. 

A sedentary lifestyle can reduce muscle tone and strength and lead to bad posture. Sore, aching feet too have a negative effect on posture. 

In fact, one may encounter numerous factors in life that can get in the way of good posture. Bad posture could be due to an injury, a disease, genetics, or a combination of these factors.

28. Discuss in detail about Female Athlete Triad.    (2016)  

Ans. Female athlete triad is a syndrome that consists of osteoporosis (weak bones), amenorrhoea (no menstrual periods) and eating disorders.

Symptoms and signs of this disorder include weight loss, no periods or irregular periods, fatigue and decreased ability to concentrate and stress fractures.

The treatment includes eating a nutrient-rich, well-balanced diet, exercising in moderate amounts, getting plenty of rest and finding ways to reduce stress.

The prevention includes educating athletes, coaches, trainers, and parents. Athletes should be educated about basic nutrition concepts, burnout and overtraining, rest and recovery, healthy weight management energy levels, and bone health.

29. How does participation in physical activities enhance self-esteem among children?          (2016)

Ans. Exercise can significantly increase our self-esteem. In the short term, exercise enhances the mood and puts the mind in a more positive state. 

In the long term, exercise makes us feel good about our physical abilities and physique, physical activity improves strength, flexibility and cardiovascular health. 

Regular exercise can help prevent obesity as well as other related diseases like heart disease and diabetes. Healthy students can feel positive about their body image and overall health, increasing self-esteem.

30. What are the advantages of maintaining a correct posture? (2016)

Ans. The advantages of maintaining a correct posture are:

  • Keeps bones and joints in the correct alignment so that muscles are used properly.
  • Helps decrease the abnormal wearing of joint surfaces.
  • Decreases stress on ligaments holding the joints of the spine together. 
  • Prevents the spine from becoming fixed in abnormal positions.
  • Prevents fatigue because muscles are being used more efficiently, allowing the body to use less energy.
  • Prevents backache and muscular pain.  
  • It contributes to a good appearance.

31. Write about the deformities of spinal curvature.    (2016) 

Ans. There are three main types of spine curvature disorders. These are:

Lordosis — Also called swayback, the spine of a person with lordosis curves significantly inward at the lower back.

Kyphosis — Kyphosis is characterized by an abnormally rounded upper back (more than 50 degrees of curvature).

Scoliosis— A person with scoliosis has a sideways curve to the spine. The curve is often S-shaped or C-shaped.

32. Keeping in view the Indian ideology, critically analyze the sociological aspects of women athletes in sports participation. (2016)

Ans. Sports in India was a male bastion for a long time. Sports was, and still is, a field where gender inequality persists. From award money to media exposure, women’s sports has a long way to go. 

Considerable strides have been made in the last few decades and it is getting better with each passing day. 

Women were expected to look after domestic affairs and competitiveness was not encouraged. 

With changing times, things became better for women. The twentieth century saw rapid progress in women’s participation in sports which further improved in the 21st century.

Today, women participate in almost all sports at all levels of competition but they get little recognition and praise. Most of the time men get preference over women. 

Facilities for coaching, hostels and funded programs are not adequate enough for women. Men get more and better scholarships and sponsorships than women do. However, all this is changing to the advantage of female athletes.

33. What is “an abnormal curvature of the spine at front” termed as? (Al 2015) 

Ans. Abnormal curvature of spine at the front is called Kyphosis.

Case-based/Source-based Integrated Questions

1. Asked to encourage the new students in your school to enroll in regular physical education classes the PE teacher, you are to motivate them and encourage them by explaining to them the of sports.

(a) How would you say the students will benefit from sports?

Ans. Sports lead to overall development in children. They develop a better vision, maintain a healthy weight. tone up their muscles and develop self-confidence.

Sports also aid in developing motor besides being a great source of fun and enjoyment.

(b) What is implied by sportsman spirit?

Ans. Sportsman spirit is the ability to accept success with grace and conduct oneself with the same grace  one loses.

Understanding that wins and losses are part of sports and behaving equitably in the face both is the sportsman spirit that sports teaches.

(c) What is the role of sports in developing social skills?     

Ans. Learning to interact with new sports partners and other children from different strata of society is a great aid for children to understand the composite nature of sports and consequently life as well.

Making new friends and dealing with the different natures of other children is also an asset sports offer.

2. The visiting Child Specialist at the school clinic was educating the students about the various stages of childhood and how with every age the development was different. She remarked how with the growth in age there were specific landmarks that became obvious.

(a) What different ages did she divide the childhood into?

Ans. The paediatrician divided childhood into early childhood from 2-6 years of age, middle childhood from 7-10 years and late childhood as 11-12 years.

(b) How did she differentiate between skill development with age?

Ans. In the talk, the pediatrician explained the progression of skills from simple to complex. Thus, in the early ages, there is the development of gross motor skills such as sitting, walking and running. As the skills progress, fine skills are developed such as learning to draw, holding pencils and bats, etc.

(c) What according to her was the most remarkable feature of late childhood?

Ans. The most remarkable feature of late childhood is that males and females start to behave differently. More complex sports and games are learnt and played. The competitive spirit develops and weight and height increase noticeably.

3. One of your classmates has a very noticeable forward bend at his spine. This acts as a handicaP for him in sports and movement. Curious to know why, you learn that there are many different types of deformities of the spine, one of which your classmate has.

(a) How many types of deformities of the spine are known?

Ans. There are three distinct types of deformities in the spine. These are Kyphosis, where the spine is bent on itself; Scoliosis, where there is a side-to-side increase of the spinal curvature; and Lordosis, where the spine protrudes forward so the hips are very prominent.

(b) Which deformity is your classmate most likely to have?

Ans. The classmate suffers from Kyphosis and his back is bent forward with chin pointing downwards. This causes him to have poor musculature and difficulty in breathing, causing him to fall sick quite often. 

(c) What could be the causes of this deformity?

Ans. The causes of Kyphosis include spine infection in early childhood, injury to the spine, malnutrition and  bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia.

Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Physical Education notes of chapter 4 children and women in sports. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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