Management Of Sporting Events | Chapter 1 Notes

Management of sporting events and Planning in sports chapter 1 CBSE class 12 physical education notes. This CBSE physical education class 12 note has a brief explanation of every topic that the NCERT syllabus has.

You will also get NCERT solutions, CBSE class 12 Physical Education sample paper, CBSE Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Management Of Sporting Events And Planning In Sports

Planning In Sports can be understood as the process of making a sequence of work for a future line of action. It can also be termed as instruction or guidelines for future courses of action.

Introduction Of Planning

Planning comprises the process of setting goals developing and schedules to accomplish the goals.

In simple words, planning is deciding in advance as to what, where, how, and by whom it is to be performed.

Mitchell: ” Planning is usually interpreted as a process to develop a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate actions”

Evelyn: “ A plan is a trap laid to capture the futures”

Objectives of Planning

planning in sports

Reduce Pressure With proper planning tasks can be performed effectively. It also will reduce unnecessary pressure.

Proper Coordinator Planning facilitates coordination among various members of committees

Reduce mistakes Complete reduction of mistakes is not possible, with proper planning this can be minimized.

Increase efficiency of officials Planning helps officials to do their assigned work more efficiently and effectively.

Enhance creativity- It enhances creativity, many new ideas are brought when they make plans together.

Enhance performance Planning always enhances the performance of officials, sportsmen, etc. who are engaged in tournaments or any kind of activity

Good control over activities Through proper planning every work is done in a controlled manner. 

Enhance Quality- Planning in sports increases the quality of work.

How To Manage And Organize Sporting Events

1. Organized planning

First, write down all the requirements of the event in detail.

  • Make various committees for different purposes.
  • Write down the purpose of the event.
  • Write down all practical elements you need
  • Decide what space you will require
  • Write down the budget for the event

Having everything written from the very start will give you a clear direction on how to proceed.

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2. Finalize the Dates

Finalize the correct date. Make sure that date doesn’t clash with other schools, colleges, or local events nearby to your area. 

3. Sufficient time:

You must have enough time during the event to pull your resources together to make the event a success.

3. Finalize the venue

Your venue must have enough capacity to accommodate teams and spectators or attendees. Also, Finalize whether it will be indoor or outdoor.

A venue must have enough space for parking and traffic.

4. Prior Permission

It is also very important to take necessary permissions from local authorities to hold an event.

5. Determine sports event type

Now Decide the type of tournament or event you organize. Whether it will be knock-out or league. How many teams or individuals do you need for the event.

Plan a layout for your final days and how you can make that happen.

6. Plan required supplies 

Make a list of supplies that will be required for your event. For instance, equipment, scorecards, certificates, posters, whistles, medals, stopwatches, awards, etc.

Note: The earlier you get suppliers the better choice and better price you can get.

7. Get proper insurance 

It is always advisable to get valid public liability insurance for your event. That will cover sports event organizers, paying damages, accidental bodily injury, or accidental damage to a third party or their property.

Note- If you fail to get the appropriate insurance in time then you might have to pay out a hefty sum if an accident occurs!

8. Health and Safety

You will be responsible for the health and safety of your workers and all event attendees.

9. Briefing staff & volunteers

All staff and volunteers should be briefed in advance on exactly what the event is aiming to achieve. Make them understand to remain professional while having fun, and be able to answer any questions on the day of the event.

10. Event promotion

Start advertising your tournament. The best way is to promote on social media to raise awareness and promote your event by using free and paid methods or advertising in a local newspaper. You can start selling tickets if any.

11. Reserve officials / referees

Make sure to reserve the sports officials in advance for the tournament at least a couple of months before. You can approach local referee organizations. 

12. Invite attendees and participants

Finalize the teams participating in the tournament and send them invitations mentioning all the details of your event including the rules and regulations, a timetable, accurate date, time, and location of the event.

13. Arrange accommodation

If teams are attending from a different region, make sure to arrange nearby accommodations for them. 

14. Invite local press

Consider inviting the local press to cover day-to-day events in local and national newspapers and television.

If you really follow these steps carefully then chances will be very less of failure. The more time you devote to planning and preparing beforehand, the smoother the event.

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Various Committees and their Responsibilities

planning in sports

Responsibilities

Director or Chairman (Head of the institution)

? Pre Work– To plan for tournament and arrange the finance

? During Work– Look after overall arrangements, welcoming guests.
? Post Work – To summarise the success of the tournament.

Organising Secretary (PET / HOD sports)

Pre Work: To do all planning and get approval and make all arrangements.

? During Work: To co-ordinator with different committee members and to check the authenticity of players.

? Post Work: To make the final report and to give a vote of thanks.

Publicity Committee: (Marketing staff)

☎ To announce dates, venues, and events and provide information to various institutions.

Transportation Committee

? Pre Work: To plan for pick up and dropping of arriving teams.

?During Work: To provide transportation for all outstation teams.

Post Work: To drop outstation teams to station, airport

Boarding & Lodging Committee: (Warden/Bursar)

? Pre Work: To get details of outstation teams, and arrange rooms and bedding.

?During Work: To arrange meals and comfortable stay for teams without disturbing their match schedule.

Post Work: To collect and return borrowed items.

Reception Committee: (Office Staff)

? Pre Work: To check team details and arrange all required items.

? During Work: To receive teams, check all proformas and provide important information about team stay and tournament schedule.

? Post Work: To check and refund security amounts and hand over certificates.

Decorations & Ceremony Committee: (Art & Craft Teacher)

? Pre Work: Arrange requirements and decorates for opening and closing ceremonies.

? During Work: To manage guests, and officials during opening and closing ceremonies, give ceremonial welcome speeches and finalize prize distribution sequences.

? Post Work: Return everything to various departments

Ground & Equipment Committee: (Coordinator/Bursar)

Pre Work: To arrange playfields and technical requirements like equipment, score sheets, and official tables.

? During Work: To provide equipment and manage needful facilities

? Post Work: To collect all equipment and return

Refreshment & Entertainment Committee:

? Pre Work: Arrange food and entertainment program

? During Work: Supply refreshments to guests, officials, and team members and organize entertainment programs during opening and closing ceremonies.

Announcement Committee

? Pre Work: To prepare script, arrange and check the public address system

? During Work: To make important announcements and do running commentary of every match.

First Aid Committee: ( Doctor & nurses)

? Pre Work: To arrange medical equipment, medicines, and tool 

? During Work: To provide first aid and medical aid to injured and sick players.

Finance Committee: (Accountant)

? Pre Work: To get details of expenses from various committees and get sanctions from higher authorities

? During Work: To provide funds for various activities and committee

? Post Work: Makes financial reports of the tournament.

Press & Media Committee: (Language Teachers)

? Pre Work: To inform the media about the tournament

? During Work: To make daily reports for press notes and coordinate with media persons.

? Post Work: To highlight the main features of tournaments.

Certificate Committee: 

? Pre Work: To collect blank certificates from the organizing secretary and get important instructions for filling.

? During Work: To write participation certificates for all teams, write merit certificates for winning teams and maintain records.

? Post Work: To return unused certificates.

Tournaments

The tournament is a healthy competition to decide the winners and top-ranked teams. A tournament provides an excellent platform to showcase the talents of different skills, techniques, tactics, and strategies.

It also provides evaluation and comparison of different teams. 

The tournament is an inspiration and encouragement for players.

Importance of Tournament

  • Development of sports skills
  • Publicity of sports
  • Helpful in Talent identification
  • Development of Social Qualities
  • Development of National and International integration
  • Good source of recreation for teams
  • Provides good feedback

Types of Tournament

The type of Tournament depends upon various factors like funds available, time periods, infrastructure, staff, facilities, level of teams, etc.

There are mainly three types of major Tournament happens

  • The knockout or single elimination tournament
  • League or Round Robin Tournament
  • Combination Tournament
    • Knock out cum League
    • Knockout cum knockout
    • League cum knockout
    • League cum League or double league

Knock Out Tournament

In a knock-out tournament only winning teams continue to play further and teams once get defeated, automatically get eliminated.

Advantages of Knockout

  • Less expensive
  • Requires less time
  • A strong team emerges winner
  • Less tiredness of players
  • Spectator interest is high

Disadvantages of Knockout

  • A good team may get eliminated
  • A good selection of players is very tough
  • High stress on players

Things to remember

The number of matches (Number of teams-1). Suppose the number of teams is 8, so the total number of matches is 8-1 = 7

? Halves

Two equal halves, in case; a number of teams are in even numbers, like 6, 8,10, etc. For example, 8 teams are divided into two halves of 4 each.

In case of odd number teams, then apply formula 

Upper Halve = N+1/2 = 9+1/2 = 5

Lower Halve =    N-1/2 = 9-1/2 = 4

Example: 10 teams; 5+5 two equal halves, 13 teams; 7 in upper halve and 6 in lower halve.

? Bye: [ 4,8,16,32,64 …]

It is an opportunity to play matches in the higher rounds directly without playing in the first round.

If the number of participating teams are in “power of 2” like 2² = 2×2 = 4, 2³ = 2x2x2 = 8, 2⁴ = 2x2x2x2 = 16, 2x2x2x2x2 = 32 etc. Then there is no need to give Bye.

In case the number of teams is not in “power of 2″ then subtract from the nearest ” power of 2″, like 4,8,16,32,64, etc. For instance, if the number of teams is 10 then subtract 10 from 16 (16-10) = 6 byes will be given to six different teams.

More examples:  

For 13 teams; 16-13=3 byes, 

For 5 teams; 8-5=3 byes, 

For 17 teams; 32-17=15 byes, 

For 27 teams; 32-27=5 byes

For 33 teams; 64-33=31 byes

It is best to divide the number of Byes to both upper and lower halves equally. But in case of odd numbers, the lower half will have one more Bye than the upper halves.

Example: For 9 teams, the Number of Byes is (16-9) = 7.  Upper halves will get one extra Bye, which means out of 7 Byes 4 byes will be given to upper halves and 3 byes will be given to Lower halves.

The formula for distributing Byes

Example For 9 teams ( No of Byes; 16-9= 7)

Upper Halve = No. of Byes – (1/2) = 7-(1/2) = 3 Byes 

Lower Halve =    No. of Byes + (1/2) = 7+(1/2) = 4 Byes

? Number of Rounds:

Find the number of rounds from the nearest number of “power of 2”. Example; For 14 teams, no. of rounds will be 4, as the nearest number of power of 2 is 2⁴ (2x2x2x2)

planning

Seeding Knockout Tournament

Seeding means placing the good teams (Previous position holders) directly to higher rounds may be to quarter-final or semifinals. Teams need to place on top and lower position of each half. 

planning

League or Round Robin Tournament

In this type of tournament, every team plays with every other team in their pool, irrespective of win, loss, or draw. It provides the maximum number of opportunities to show the best performance.

Advantages of League Tournament

  • The team gets ample opportunities
  • True winner emerges
  • The team can improve their performance in the next match
  • Skilled selection is possible
  • Players’ interests remain intact

Disadvantages of League Tournament

  • Time-consuming
  • It needs large arrangements
  • Very expensive
  • Less interest from spectators
  • Demoralized weak team due to repeated loss

League Fixtures

Cyclic Method

In this method, fixtures are made using Cyclic Method. One team is fixed on the top right-hand side and teams move in ascending order consecutively downward and then move upward on the left side.

In the case of odd numbers, a bye is fixed in place of one, Other numbers will move in ascending order.

planning

Staircase Method

In this method, fixtures are made like a staircase. This method is considered the easiest method.

A team gets maximum points in a tournament, declared the winner. The winner of the match gets 2 points. The loser gets 0 and for a draw, 1 point is awarded to both teams.

planning

Combination Tournament

This type of Tournament is usually conducted when the number of teams is more. Teams are divided into various halves depending upon the number of teams. Either two halves, four halves, six halves, etc.

The team belonging to the concerned group play among themselves in either a knockout or league basis and decides the winner of the group.

Thereafter the group winners play among themselves and decide the champion.

Types of Combination Tournaments:

  • Knock out – League
  • Knock out – knock out
  • League – league (Double league)
  • League – knock out

Knockout Cum League fixture

A total number of teams are divided into four pools. Every team in their respective pools will play on a knockout basis. The winner of each pool will again play together on a league basis

planning

League Cum Knockout

The total number of teams is divided into four pools. Every team, in their respective pools, will play with each other on a league basis. The winner of each pool will again play together on a knockout basis

planning

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Multiple Choice Question

To calculate the total no of teams in the upper half for knockout tournaments, when the total no of teams is odd, which formula is used?

a. N+1/2
b. N – 1
c. N(2+1)/2
d. (N+1)2/2

2. The other name for League Tournament is-

a. Round Robin Tournament
b. Knock out Tournament
c. Combination Tournament
d. Challenge Tournament

3. For the successful organization of the sports meet, committees are formed under three heads. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

a. First-meet committee
b. Pre-meet committee
c. During-meet committee
d. Post-meet committee

4. How many byes will be given for 21 teams on the knock-out basis?

a. 11
b. 16
c. 14
d. 17

5. Which of the following is not an objective of planning in sports?

a. Training of empires and coaches
b. Timely achievement of the target
c. Distribution of work
d. Finding out the causes of failure

5. Name the type of tournament in which the defeated team gets eliminated and does not have another chance to play.

a. Knockout
b. League
c. Bye
d. Challenging

6. In the placement of Byes, IV Bye is given to whom?

a. 1st Team of lower half
b. 1st team of upper half
c. Last team of lower half
d. Last team of upper half

7. Privilege given to a team that exempts it from playing in the 1st round is-

a. Bye
b. Seeding
c. Fixture
d. Special seeding

8. Which of the following is not a type of tournament?

a. Fixture
b. Knockout
c. League
d. Challenging Tournament

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Long Answer Type Questions

1. League tournament is a better way to judge the best team in the tournament. Comment.

Ans. The League tournament is also known as the round-robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other irrespective of winning or losing. Only the strongest and most deserving team wins the tournament. 

Each team gets a full opportunity to show its skills. The disadvantage is that league tournaments take more time and are expensive. However, this method helps decide a truly deserving winner. (CBSE 2020)

2. Draw a knockout fixture for 25 teams with all steps involved.

Ans. Total No. of matches = N – 1 = 25 – 1 = 24

Total No. of rounds = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 5 rounds Total No. of byes = 32 – 25 = 7 rounds.

planning in sports

4. How many total matches will be played in a knockout tournament of 20 teams? (2019) 

Ans. Since the number of matches to be played in a knockout tournament is one less than the number of teams (N-1), a total of 19 matches will be played.

5. What are the advantages of league tournaments?    (2019)

Ans. The advantages offered by league tournaments are as follows:

(a) Every team has an opportunity to play every other team at least once.

(b) Since each team gets to play multiple matches, the players have a great opportunity to showcase their talent.

(c) The overall best team has the highest chance of winning the tournament.

(d) Participants have an opportunity to improve their skills as they can be spectators at many other games.

(e) It is easier to correctly rank the teams in the order of sustained performances.

(f) Everyone maintains enthusiasm and skillsets till the end of the tournament. 

(g) Spectators get an opportunity to watch their stars in action many times over a short period of time.

6. What is a League Tournament? Draw a fixture of nine (9) teams on the basis of the league tournament using a cyclic method. Explain the British method to declare the winner. (2019) 

Ans. League Tournament, also known as a round-robin tournament, is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants. If we have nine teams in the league tournament, the fixture will be as follows:

planning in sports

British Method: Here, the total points won are divided by the maximum possible points. Thus, if any team playing a ten-match tourney wins seven and draws three matches, the percentage of wins is simply calculated as—

Total points = 7 x 2 + 3 x 1 = 17 points. Possible maximum points = 10 x 2 = 20 points 

Percentage points won = Total points won x 100 divided by total possible points. So, 17 x 100 = 1700 divided by 20 = 85%

7. Discuss the role of various committees and their responsibilities to organize national-level sports events.    (2019) 

Ans. Three types of committees are needed to organize national-level sports events. These are pre-tournament, during the tournament, and post-tournament committees. 

The first is the Organizing Committee which is headed by a Chairman who has the overall responsibility of organizing, running, and wrapping up the event. All sub-committees report to the organizing committee. 

All aspects of the event are routed through this committee. The finance committee takes care of the budget, plans to spend, and prevents wasteful expenditure, publicity Committee brings the dates, venues, and timing of the events to the notice of the people.

Technical Committee is tasked with the responsibility to ensure that correct equipment, playing area courts and grounds meet the required specifications, Purchase Committee acquires sports equipment and other items that will be needed, 

During a tournament, we need the Reception Committee, Transportation Committee, Boarding, and Lodging Committee, Medical Committee, 

Tournament Committee, Ceremonies  Committee, Officials Committee, and Announcement Committee, After the tournament is over, post-tournament committee winds up the event,

Post-tournament Committee

Once an event is over, it needs to be wound up. These committees may consist of members from the pre-and during-tournament committees. 

They are responsible for the smooth return of sportspersons to their respective homes and countries by ensuring proper post-event transport facilities, etc.

8. What is ‘Seeding’ in Fixture for Tournaments? (2018, 2016, 2014) 

Ans. Seeding is a procedure by which good teams are placed in fixtures so that they do not meet each other at the very start of a tournament. 

The strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they do not meet each other in earlier rounds.

9. Define Combination Tournament. Draw a fixture of 16 teams using Knockout-cum-League Method. (2018) 

Ans. Combination Tournaments are those tournaments in which initial rounds are played on a particular basis, either on a knockout or league basis, and the rest of the tournament is played on another basis. Given below is a Combination Tournament plan for 16 teams:

planning in sports

10. Fixtures are the schedule fixed for the matches. What is a Bye?    (2017)

Ans. Bye refers to the practice of allowing a player or team to advance to the next round of a playoff tournament without playing.

11. Round-Robin Tournament is of two types. Name them and give one major difference between them. (2017)

Ans. Round-Robin tournaments are either single league tournaments or double league tournaments. In the former, each team clashes with the other once while in the latter, they play each other at least twice.

12. Draw a fixture of 6 teams on a league basis by following the cyclic method.    (2016)

Ans. Here, the process in case of an even number of teams is that we place team 1 on top and other teams are placed consecutively downwards in ascending order to move upside down on the other side of the columns. 

The number of matches here is (N-1) where N is the number of teams. On the other hand, if the number of teams is odd, the number of rounds equals the number of teams.

planning in sports

13. Your school is organizing a ‘Run for Unity. Explain the responsibilities of accreditation, technical, and finance committees.                        (2016) 

Ans. (a) Accreditation Committee: Also called the organizing committee, it is headed by a Chairman who has the overall responsibility of organizing, running, and wrapping up the event. 

All sub-committees report to the organizing committee. All aspects of the event are routed through this committee. 

(b) Technical Committee: This committee is tasked with the responsibility to ensure that the correct equipment, playing area, courts, and grounds meet the required specifications.

(c) Finance Committee: All events need a budget for their smooth conduct. The finance committee takes care of the budget, plans to spend, and prevents wasteful expenditure. Many finance committees are also tasked with arranging funds and sponsorships.

14. Draw a fixture of 11 Football teams participating in a tournament on the basis of knockout.    (2016) 

Ans

planning in sports

15. Write the formula for giving Bye. (2016)

Ans. In case the number of byes to be given is an even number, they are divided equally between the upper and lower half. 

The process to be followed between the teams starts with writing numbers 1 to 13 on a piece of paper. 

Then each team picks a number that represents their team number in the tournament. They are then divided into two lots.

Thereafter, the number of byes to be given is calculated as: 

(a) The last team of the lower half gets the first bye.

 (b) The first team of the upper half gets the second bye.

(c) The first team of the lower half gets the third bye.

(d) The last team of the upper half gets the fourth bye.

16. How various committees are formed for tournaments? Write briefly. (2016) 

Ans. Organizing sports activities at all levels need support staff and skilled people. Many people with different skills need to plan and then execute the events together and carry out specific tasks to the best of their abilities. 

Depending on the level of sports, participation, a number of events, and available resources, different committees need to be set up.

These committees are set up before, during, and after the tournament. Some look after the set-up of the event as the organizing committee, finance committee, technical committee, publicity committee, etc.

While others are active during the tournament, looking after the reception, transport, boarding, lodging, etc., while a few people are needed after the event.

17. Being the captain of the school, prepare five important committees with their responsibilities to conduct a one-day run for health.    (2015)

Ans. To organize a run for health, we need to set up many committees. The most important is the organizing committee that will work with the overall organization of the event. 

Arranging money to run the event is the function of the finance committee while the publicity committee is in charge of spreading awareness about the event. 

The medical committee takes care of the health aspects while the ceremonies committee will be involved in related ceremonies.

18. Draw a knockout fixture of 21 teams mentioning the steps involved. (2015, 2014)

 

planning in sports

Ans. A knockout fixture of 21 teams is as follows: Once a participating team loses, it does not get another chance to play and is eliminated. 

The total number of games to be played is one less than the total number of teams. In this example, a total of 20 games will be played. Thus, the diagram will look like as shown below:

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Case-based/Source-based Integrated Questions

1. As the head sports boy of the school, Arun was tasked with organizing an extramural cricket competition in his school and in the city. 

He was asked to involve his schoolmates in the various committees with the sports teacher of the school acting merely as an adviser.

(a) What was his role as the head of the organizing committee?

Ans. As chairman of the tournament organizing committee, Arun had the overall responsibility of setting up the various sub-committees, coordinating between them as well as overseeing all aspects of the tournament. 

(b) What type of students did he need to co-opt on the medical committee?

Ans. For the tournament, he needed to arrange doctors, paramedical staff, and first-aid assistants. 

He also needed to set up a first-aid center and an ambulance on standby. So, he needed students who have a doctor in the family/relations for the right advice. 

(c) What was the role allotted to the finance committee?

Ans. The finance committee was given the task of estimating the expenditure for the event and raising funds from sponsors, etc. 

It also had to ensure that no wasteful expenditure was incurred. After the event, a statement of accounts giving details of receipts/expenditure was to be submitted to the school.

2. To seek the involvement of all senior school students in the Sports Day, Mr. Ramcharan, the head sports teacher, was addressing the assembled students. 

He mentioned the objectives of the event and went on to explain how it helped improve performance and find talent in various sports. He also spoke of the role of sports in national integration.

(a) What reasons for skill development did the sports teacher talk of?

Ans. According to the teacher, the progress of sports depends on identifying new skills amongst students. 

Sports help develop skills in technical as well as tactical aspects. With better skills, the standard of sports rises as well.

(b) How did he think that talent could be identified?

Ans. Existing good players are already known but when sports events are organized, new sportspersons who do well at the game also get picked up and get recognition. 

Thus, the school gets new players who, in turn, get an opportunity to showcase their talent, the sports teacher said.

(c) How do these events increase national pride and integration? 

Ans. When a sportsperson of a school does well in an intramural tournament, they get to represent the school at extramural events as well. 

In a city-wide event, the good performers get to represent the city and, further, even the state and the country as they progress. When a sportsperson does well at international events, they bring laurels to not only their institution but to the country as well.

3. A renowned sports administrator, Mr Puri, was talking to the organizing committee of your school. 

He talked about the types of tournaments they could hold and went on to explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method. 

He also talked about the seeding method of rating players. 

(a) What methods of organizing tournaments did he talk about? 

Ans. The various methods of organizing tournaments that Mr. Puri spoke about were knockout tournaments, Round Robin tournaments, combination tournaments, and challenge tournaments.  

(b) Why did he recommend the knockout method for the inter-city badminton tournament? 

Ans. Since the inter-city badminton tournament had a very large number of entries, he suggested the knockout method wherein the losing team in each match was eliminated. 

This would reduce the time taken by the tournament and would also be cheaper to organize. 

Since each team knew they had only one chance, they would put in their best possible efforts. 

Also, with limited officials required, there would be no need to bring in people from outside.

(c) Why did he rate the school captain of badminton as the top seed and what advantage did the player

Ans. Since the school badminton captain was a very strong player with a lot of wins in the past, he would not be pitted against the relatively weaker players in the early rounds. 

This would allow the weaker players to exhibit their skills against equally skilled players and eliminate the threat of their early exclusion from the tournament. On the other hand, being the top seed, he would need to play lesser games to reach the finals. 


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Final Words

From the above article, you must have learned about CBSE class 12 physical education notes of chapter 1 Planning in sports. We hope that these crisp and latest CBSE physical education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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