[Latest] Physical Education & Sports For CWSN | Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes 2024

Sports For CWSN

Sports for cwsn and normal children, both are equally important. More or less every child needs to participate in sports and games for proper growth and development.

Special needs children are generally not encouraged to take part in sports. Whereas participating in sports can help boost their self-confidence and relationship-building. It can also improve their fitness levels and skill.

Many children with disabilities do not have equal access to Health Care, Education, and employment opportunities. 

Nowadays sports for disabled children are organized officially. Physical education and sports provide ample opportunity to disabled children to lead a fruitful and energetic life.

Organizations Promoting Disability Sports

(Special Olympics; Paralympics; Deaflympics)

Special Olympics: cwsn, special Olympics logo

The Special Olympics was founded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver in 1968. The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and athletic competition in a variety of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities. 

It provides opportunities for athletes to develop their physical fitness, experience the joy of sportsmanship and participate in sharing gifts, skills, and friendships with their families, other Special Olympics athletes, and the community.

The Special Olympics’ mission remains as vital today as it was when the movement was founded. Intellectual Disability (or ID) is a term used when a person has certain limitations in cognitive functioning and skills, including communication, social and self-care skills. 

These limitations cause a child to develop and learn slowly or differently than a typically developing child. 

According to the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, an individual has an intellectual disability if they fall under the following category.

1. IQ is below 70-75.

2. There are significant limitations in two or more adaptive areas (skills that are needed to live,  work and play in the community, such as communication or self-care).

3. The condition manifests itself before the age of 18.

Through sports, people with intellectual disabilities discover new strengths and abilities, skills and success. There are as many as 200 million people with intellectual disabilities around the world. 

Special Olympics reaches out to these individuals through a wide range of training, competitions, health screenings, and fundraising events. These Games also allow people to change their attitudes and support athletes.

Sports instill confidence, improve health, and inspire a sense of competition. In the Special Olympics, the focus is on what these individuals are capable of so the attention shifts from disability to ability. 

Over 30 Olympic-style sports, from gymnastics to soccer to open-water swimming are a part of these Games. These include athletics, badminton, basketball’ cricket, horse riding, hockey

A total of 1,258 Special Olympics Bharat athletes participated in nine World Summer Games and six World Winter Games between 1987 and 2019. 

They have won 444 gold, 508 silver, and 552 bronze medals in the world summer and world winter games winning a total of 1,504 medals.

Today, the Special Olympics supports over 5 million athletes, 1 million coaches and volunteers,  over one lakh (1,00,000) tournaments each year, and 32 Olympic-type sports through various programs in more than 170 countries.

Paralympics cwsn, Paralympics logo

Paralympics are international multi-sport events that were initiated for athletes with disabilities like amputations, blindness and cerebral palsy. Now they are held every four years. 

History: The Paralympics developed after Sir Ludwig Guttmann organized a sports competition for British World War II veterans with spinal cord injuries in England in 1948. 

A follow-up competition took place in 1952, with athletes from the Netherlands joining British competitors. These games were first held in Rome in 1960. 

The term Paralympics was officially used only in 1988 during the games held in Seoul, South Korea. This was a summer Paralympics. The winter version of these games was first held in Sweden in 1976.

Categories: Paralympics athletes compete in six different disability groups—amputee, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, spinal cord injuries, intellectual disability, and “les autres” (athletes whose disability does not fit into one of the other categories, including dwarfism).

Opening Ceremony: Like the regular Olympic Games, the Paralympics also start with an opening ceremony where the host nation plays its national anthem and hoists the nation’s flag. 

Thereafter, there is a march passed by the participating countries. The formal opening announcement of the games is followed by a cultural program as at the regular Olympics. 

Governing Body: These games are governed by the International Paralympics Committee, which was set up in 1989 and is headquartered Bonn in Germany.

Events: This Paralympics organized events such as archery, basketball, swimming, fencing, javelin, shot put, club throwing, snooker, swimming, table tennis and the pentathlon. For more than a decade, Paralympics were held only for summer sports.

As of 2016, the Summer Paralympics include 22 sports and 526 medal events, and the Winter Paralympics include 6 sports and disciplines and will have 82 events for the 2022 Winter Paralympics in Beijing, China.

The Tokyo 2021 Paralympic Games featured the following 22 sports:

Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Boccia, Canoeing, Cycling, Equestrian, Football 5-a-side, Goalball, Judo, Powerlifting, Rowing, Shooting, Sitting Volleyball, 

Swimming, Table Tennis, Taekwondo, Triathlon, Wheelchair Basketball, Wheelchair Fencing, Wheelchair Rugby, and Wheelchair Tennis. 

The last Summer Paralympics were held in September 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Winter Paralympics were held in March 2018, in Pyeongchang, South Korea.

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Deaflympics cwsn, Deaflympics logo

The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf and International Games for the Deaf) are an IOC-recognised event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. It was in 2001 that these games were renamed Deaflympics.

Deaflympics where deaf athletes strive to reach the pinnacle of competition by embracing the motto of ‘PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS’ (Equality through sport) and adhering to the ideals of the Olympics.

History: The first games, known as the International Silent Games, were held in 1924 in Paris with athletes from nine European nations participating in it. 

The games were the brainchild of Eugene RubensAlcais, himself deaf, and President of the French Deaf Sports Federation.

In 1924 Summer Deaflympics were held in Paris, France, from 10 to 17 August, as an equivalent to the Olympic Games for deaf athletes. This was the first international sporting event held for athletes with a disability. The athletes excelled in road cycling, diving, football, shooting, swimming, and tennis,

In 1996, the name was changed to ‘World Games for the Deaf’, and then again in 2001 to ‘Deaflympics.’ The games are held every two years and alternate between Summer and winter games.

The most recent Deaflympics were held in July 2017, which were hosted by Turkey. A total of 3148 athletes from 97 countries competed in 18 sports with 21 disciplines in these games. 

Winter Deaflympics was instituted in 1949 at Seefeld, Austria. The 2015 Winter Deaflympics were hosted by Russia with 336 participating athletes from 27 countries.

Rules: To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 dB in one ear. The use of hearing aids and cochlear implants is not allowed during the competition, in order to create a level playing field. 

The athletes in the Deaflympics also have a greater age range than the Olympic athletes — the oldest medallist in the history of the games was nearly 76 years old and the youngest medallist was 12.

The Deaflympics referees don’t use whistles; instead, they use flags. On the track, races are started by light rather than the sound of a pistol. 

In addition, spectators watching the games often wave their hands to cheer their athletes. All of the events are played the same way as at the Olympics. 

The rules for playing each sport are not altered in any way for deaf participants. This fact distinguishes deaf sports from sports played by other groups of people with disabilities. 

Features: Deaf people are not disabled in any manner except communication— and this is only a disability when a deaf person is in a situation where hearing and speech are the primary means of communication. 

Deaf people are a culturally distinct minority group. The Deaflympics are the second oldest multi-sport Olympic event. 

Logo: The Deaflympics logo is inspired by the Olympics logo. The circle in the middle represents an eye because deaf people are very visual. 

The four colors of the logo—red, green, yellow, and blue represent the four regional confederations of the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf— Europe, Asia-Pacific, Pan-America, and Africa.

The Deaflympics logo, designed in 2003 by graphic design artist Ralph Fernandez, is a positive and powerful symbol of the international deaf sports community. 

It ties together strong elements: Sign language, deaf and international cultures, unity, and continuity. 

The hand shapes, “ok good”, and “great” that overlap each other in a circle, represent the Original sign for “Deaflympics”. Together, the hand shapes represent the sign for “united”. 

The center of the logo represents the iris of the eye, which defines deaf people as visual people who must use their eyes to communicate.

The logo incorporates the four colors of the national flags of the world. The red, blue, yellow, and green represent the four regional confederations

— the Asia Pacific Deaf Sports Confederation, 

— the European Deaf Sports Organization, — the Pan American Deaf Sports Organization 

— the Confederation of African Deaf Sports.

Concept of Classification and Divisioning in Sports

In the world of sports, classification and divisioning play a vital role in ensuring fair and competitive participation for athletes of all abilities.

Classification refers to the process of grouping athletes based on their functional abilities, impairments, or characteristics, rather than their skill level. This ensures that individuals with similar conditions compete against each other, creating a level playing field.

The goal of classification is to promote inclusivity and fairness, allowing athletes with disabilities or different abilities to participate and excel in their respective sports.

Divisioning, on the other hand, involves categorizing athletes into specific divisions or classes based on their classification. This ensures that competitions are structured in a way that accommodates various levels of abilities.

For example, in Paralympic sports, athletes are classified according to their impairment, such as physical, visual, or intellectual, and placed into relevant divisions. This system helps create exciting and engaging competitions for both athletes and spectators.

Classification and divisioning not only promote fairness but also provide opportunities for athletes to challenge themselves and showcase their skills within their respective categories.

The process of classification and division involves experts, medical professionals, and governing bodies who work together to assess and categorize athletes based on established criteria.

It is crucial for sports organizations to regularly review and update the classification systems to ensure they remain accurate and reflective of the athletes’ abilities.

In conclusion, classification and division are essential elements in sports, fostering a spirit of inclusivity and creating a platform for athletes to compete at their best regardless of their abilities.

Concept of Inclusion in Sports, its Need and Implementations

Inclusion in sports refers to the practice of creating an environment where everyone, regardless of their abilities, gender, race, or background, can participate and feel welcome. 

This concept is essential to ensure that all individuals have equal opportunities to engage in sports and experience the numerous physical, emotional, and social benefits that come with it.

The Need for Inclusion in Sports:

Promoting Diversity: Inclusion fosters diversity in sports, allowing individuals from various backgrounds to come together and celebrate their differences. This enriches the sporting community and breaks down barriers between cultures.

Empowering Individuals: Embracing inclusion empowers individuals with disabilities or those facing socio-economic challenges to participate actively in sports. It boosts their self-esteem and encourages them to pursue their passions.

Breaking Stereotypes: Inclusion helps challenge stereotypes associated with certain sports or genders, proving that anyone can excel in any discipline if given the opportunity and support.

Implementations for Inclusion in Sports:

Accessible Facilities: Providing accessible infrastructure and equipment ensures that people with disabilities can participate comfortably. This includes ramps, adaptive sports equipment, and wheelchair-friendly spaces.

Training and Education: Coaches, referees, and volunteers should undergo training to understand the needs of diverse athletes and create an inclusive atmosphere. This includes learning about adaptive techniques and fostering sensitivity.

Inclusive Policies: Sports organizations must adopt inclusive policies that address discrimination, harassment, and unequal treatment, while actively promoting diversity in all aspects of the game.

Supportive Programs: Creating outreach programs and scholarships for underprivileged individuals can make sports more accessible to them and provide opportunities they might not otherwise have.

Advantages of Physical Activities for children with special needs

Reduce depression:

Physical activities may help in reducing the level of depression of children with disabilities. It also reduces their anxiety, and stress levels.

Improve social interaction:

Physical activities provide children with ample opportunities for social interaction. Their social relations improve during their involvement in physical activities. Many sports activities lead to increased social integration, bonding, and friendship.

Enhance emotional and psychological health:

Physical activities improve continues psychological and emotional health.

Cognitive benefits:

Physical activities lead to cognitive skills such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering. It allows them to discover and access strengths that cannot be challenged in the classroom setting.

Fun activities

Physical activities lead to mood benefits. They enjoy social interaction with both fitness staff and other participants.

Increased fitness levels

By doing regular physical activities children improve their muscle strength, coordination, and flexibility. It also enhances better balance, motor skills and body awareness.

Improve health quality

Children have many positive changes in their health that boost their self-esteem. They get a sense of accomplishment and possibly the taste of winning or personal satisfaction. It will also increase their appetite and improve the quality of sleep.

Improve responses

Regular physical activities increases in attention span, on-task behavior, and level of correct responding.

Decreases secondary health issues

Regular physical activities decrease secondary health complications like obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, and diabetes.

Strategies To Make Physical Activities Accessible For Children With Special Needs

Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible to Children With Special Needs

Education is a basic right that we use to improve children with disabilities ranging from mental disabilities to hearing impairment, visual handicap, or speech impairment. Focus on making these special needs a part of a productive society is a worthy aim.

We need to plan for activities keeping in mind the interest and abilities of these children. Over a period of time, we have developed special programs labeled “Adapted physical education” (APE). 

APE is physical education that is individualized and specially designed to address the needs of students with disabilities who require adaptations or modifications to be physically active, participate safely, and make progress.

Some considerations are as follows:

  1. Health Check-ups: Regular and detailed medical assessment of all special needs children is a must. Specialized assessment of the child helps us focus on the disability and appropriate activity recommended for such children.
  2. Individual Needs: Assessment of each child needs to be done so that a specific customized adapted program is made for them. Teachers should be sensitive to each child’s interests, limitations, and aptitude. The activity should be designed keeping all this in mind.
  3. Specialized Equipment: The size, weight, shape, and color of the playing equipment also has to be customized. Visually handicapped children need brightly coloured equipment while those with weak muscles need a lighter design of equipment.
  4. Playing Environment: Playing areas need to be modified. The size of the playfield may need to be decreased or more lights and louder music and provision of handrails, etc.
  5. Playing Rules: These also have to be changed suitably. Playing rules should be easier and more flexible. As the skills improve, the rules can be regulated accordingly. Past performance and existing skills should also be considered while making rules for such children.
  6. Training of Educators: It is of vital importance. All instructors should undergo specialized training to handle special needs children. Understanding of specific disabilities has to be there for the trainers to be effective. Adapted physical education ideas must be ingrained
  7. Safety Supervision: Trained medical supervision is desirable.
  8. Activities according to individual’s abilities: Design specific activities according to their abilities. Physical Activities must be based on their interest
  9. Specific environment: This should be provided to them. Activities designed for them must be encouraging them to participate freely.
  10. Encouragement: Encouragement from spectators irrespective of their errors.
  11. Previous Experience: Children’s previous experience must be taken into consideration
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Concept of Disability and Disorders


Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

It is a functional limitation or restriction of an individual’s ability to perform an activity. It means disability creates obstruction in the normal function or movement of an individual. It limits and restricts the activity of a person.

sports for cwsn

Types of Disability

Some individuals are disabled right at birth, others get disabled due to some incidence during the course of their lives. Some disabilities are as follows:

Types of Disability

Physical Disability
It is a limitation of individuals’ physical functioning which may be related to the upper or lower body. These are generally related to musculoskeletal, circulatory, respiratory, and nervous systems. 
Disability in mobility can be either inborn or acquired with age.

Sensory Disability 
Sensory impairment is when one of the senses; sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste is no longer normal.

⏩ Spinal cord disability: It can lead to lifelong disability. It generally occurs due to severe accidents.

⏩ Brain Disability: This type of disability occurs due to brain injury from external forces.

⏩ Vision Disability: This is related to vision problems that may be in-born or happen afterward. Vision disability may be mild, moderate, severe, or blindness.

⏩ Hearing Disability: It includes people that are completely or partially deaf. People who are partially deaf can use hearing aids. It can be evident at birth or occur later in life.

Cognitive or Learning Disability:
It is a neurological disorder. It can affect an individual’s ability to read, speak and write.

⏩ Memory Disorder: Individual who has auditory problems or difficulty in remembering something.

⏩ Dyslexia: Individuals have difficulties in writing, reading, and speaking.

Intellectual Disability:
This disability is related to the limitations of intellectual functioning (such as reasoning, learning) and Adaptive behavior ( such as social and practical skills).


Children with special needs

The disorder is a problem that disrupts normal physical or mental functions. It is a state of confusion that interrupts normal function.

It is an abnormality of physical and mental states like psychiatric disorders, anxiety disorder, and personality disorder. 

Disorder may be resulting from a genetic failure in development or from external factors such as poison, trauma, or disease.

Types of Disorders

  • ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) 
  • SPD ( Sensory Processing Disorder) 
  • ASD ( Autism Spectrum Disorder)
  • ODD ( Oppositional Defiant Disorder)
  • OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) 

It is a brain disorder that is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior.

Individuals may have some problems focusing on activities. They may be hyperactive or may be unable to control their impulses. It has three types

  • Inattention: Children lack concentration in any work, difficulty sustaining focus and unorganised.
  • Hyperactivity: Children are unusually or abnormally active. They have impulsive actions, a shorter attention span, and easily distracted.
  • Impulsive: Impulsivity is the tendency to act without thinking about the consequences.


  • Genetic factors is one of the main cause
  • Children with low birth weight
  • When baby’s brain is damaged before or after birth
  • Lack of discipline in the family 
  • Addiction to certain diet 
  • Exposure to toxic substances at the early age.

SPD ( Sensory Processing Disorder )

It is a condition in which the brain has difficulty in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. 

It is some sort of neurological jam that prevents certain parts of the brain from receiving the information required to interpret sensory information accurately.

Sensory processing disorder may affect our senses such as touch, sight, taste, or movement. In this disorder, the person may scream when touched, or dive under the table after hearing the sound. 

In some cases, they remain unresponsive to anything around them. Even he may fail to give a response to Extreme heat or cold for pain.


  • Genetic factors is one of the main causes
  • Low birth weight is another cause
  • Excessive restrictions in early life
  • Have differences in brain structure

ASD ( Autism Spectrum Disorder )

It includes a wide range and levels of disability. Individual ability to function in society, at school, at work, or other areas of life gets hurt. 

Some people are mildly impaired, while others are severely disabled. Early treatment and proper care can reduce difficulties while helping them to learn new skills and make the most of their strength.

People with an ASD often have these characteristics like: 

Ongoing social problems include difficulty in communicating and interacting with others, obsessive interests.

Repetitive behavior as well as Limited interest in activities. 

Difficulties in language, social skills, and behavior


  • Biological or genetic factors: Something happens during fetal development. Children may inherit problematic genes from parents.
  • Environmental Factors: High levels of pollution and pesticides in food may also be one of the reasons.
  • Brain Development: Connection between the brain cells are not proper, which may be another cause.

ODD ( Oppositional Defiant Disorder )

It is a condition in which a child displays an ongoing pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative, hostile behavior directed towards authority. 

Individuals behave like rebels, argue with adults, and refuse to obey any rules. They exhibit angry outbursts and a hard time controlling their anger or aggression.

They have difficulty in making friends and have low esteem. They have negativity in their behavior.


  • Biological or genetic causes: Children may develop ODD, if their parents have a history of ADHD or ODD.
  • Physical Factors: when an imbalance exists and messages are not communicated properly with other parts of the brain, the symptoms may occur.
  • Psychological Factors: Children may develop this if they have bad relationship  parents, neglectful parents.
  • Social Factors: It may happen due to poverty, chaotic environment in the family and exposed to violence

OCD ( Obsessive Compulsive Disorder )

It is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly or have certain thoughts repeatedly. 

They have fear of contamination of germs, getting dirty, making mistakes, being embarrassed, etc. 

They do some common activities which include repeated hand washing, repeated counting, checking things over and over again, repeating certain words, and so on.


  • Serotonin which send messages in brain, sends improper messages from one part of Brain to others, which may cause OCD

Disability Etiquettes

Talk Directly with the person with disabilityAlways shake hands with a person with disability when introduced.

Identify yourself and others before conversing with visually-impaired.

Always ask before you help them

Address them by their first name

Don’t touch or lean on the wheelchair

Always listen to them carefully and attentively when you are having conversations with a person who has difficulty speaking

Always give additional time

Always have a conversation with a normal tone of voice

Avoid asking personal questions
Inform before leaving

Don’t pretend to understand if you are facing a problem

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The symptoms of ________ are difficulty in communication and interaction with people.

a. ASD b. ADHD c. OCD d. ODD

2. Children suffering from dyslexia and speech disorders are said to have ________.

a. Cognitive disability

b. Intellectual disability

c. Physical disability

d. Permanent disability

3. Which of the following is not a disorder?

a. Having only one leg

b. Overeating

c. Hyper activity

d. Too much sensitivity to cleanliness

4. Repetitive behaviour is a symptom of:

a. ADHD b. ODD c. OCD  d. ASD

5. SPD’s expanded form is:

a. Special poilce department

b. Special processing Disorder

c. Sensory processing Disorder

d. Sensory processing department

6. Expanded from of ADHD is-

a. Automatic deficit hyper disorder

b. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

c. Attention disorder of hypoactive defict

d. Automatic disability high defect

7. Any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in the physical or mental capacity of a person is called ________.

a. Disability b. Disorder

c. Disease d. Discomfort

8. When a child is not able to adjust within society or having no friends, he/she is suffering from:

a. ADS b. ASD c. ODD d. OCD

9. The symptoms of ________ are people doing repetitive behaviours, performing routine tasks over and over again or having certain thoughts repeatedly.

a. OCD b. ASD c. ADHD d. ODD

10. Expanded form of ODD is:

a. Opposite different disorder

b. Oppositional defiant disorder

c. Opposite differented disability

d. Obessive defect disability

11. Which of the following is not a strategy to make physical activities accessible to children with special needs?

a. Creating special classrooms

b. Inclusive classrooms

c. Assistive technology

d. Modified Equipments

12. The common symptoms of this disorder are hyperactivity, trouble focusing on a task, a very short span of attention and missing details. It is _______.

a. ADHD b. SPD c. ASD d. OCD

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions

1. What are the types of disability? Explain briefly. (CBSE 2018)

Ans. Disability is of three types, which are as follows

(i) Cognitive disability. It is a disability that impacts an individual’s ability to access, process or remember information. It is a limitation to recognise, understand, interpret or respond to information.

(ii) Intellectual Disability. It is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. It is more severe in nature as the child is not able to perform even the daily activities along with difficulty in learning.

(iii) Physical Disability. It is a long-term loss or impairment of a body part that limits the body’s physical function. A person with physical disability cannot perform many actions independently. It may be a motor deficiency or a sensory impairment.

2. Write any three causes of disability

Ans. Three causes of disability are discussed as follows

(i) Accidents.  A wide variety of disabilities especially those associated with traumatic brain injury result from vehicular accidents, burns, falls etc.

(ii) Poverty is one of the biggest causes of disability. Poor people are most vulnerable to disability because they are forced to live and work in unsafe environments with poor sanitation, crowded living conditions and with little access to education, clean water or enough good food.

(iii) War Land mines, cluster bombs, bullets and chemicals used in wars, cause more disabilities in the world today than anything else.

3. Explain the condition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Ans. ADHD is basically a condition that affects how well one can focus, sit, still or pay attention.

The nature of this disorder is related to behavioral changes or disorders. About 10% of school going kids suffer from ADHD.

Boys are more susceptible to this disorder than girls. 

Children with ADHD may understand what’s expected by them but have trouble following the instructions required to complete the task.

Young children mostly act in this way when they are excited or anxious, but the difference with ADHD is that the symptoms are present in a kid suffering from a longer period of time and takes place in different settings. The ADHD disorder affects a child’s academic performance as well as social behavior.

4. Explain the symptoms of ADHD.

Ans. Symptoms of ADHD arc as follows

  • Hyperactivity, excessive talking, impulsivity, difficulty awaiting one’s turn.
  • Become easily distracted, trouble focusing on a task
  • Very short span of attention, failing to complete tasks
  • Problems staying organized and keeping track of things
  • Mood swings, carelessness and forgetfulness.
  • Anxiety attacks, low self-esteem and deep disorder.

5. Elaborate the causes that lead to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and SPD (Sensory Processing Disorder).

Ans. The causes leading to the two disorders are as follows

ADHD Causes

(i) Genes and Heredity. Genetic inheritance and abnormalities in genes that are acquired from birth, may cause this disorder.

(ii) Brain Injury and Epilepsy. Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD symptoms.

SPD Causes

(i) Neurological ISSUE Under Stimulated during critical periods of neurological development.

(ii) Genetic factor Genetic or heredity factors such as having a history of autism or SPD.

6. How does the Sensory Processing Disorder interfere with a child’s normal everyday functioning?

Ans. The Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through senses. Children suffering from SPD are either under-reactive or over-reactive.

They also lack motor skills, have a short span of attention and delayed communication skills.

Due to these symptoms, the children with SPD are not able to concentrate in studies or other activities. So the lack of sensory coordination with the brain in an appropriate manner interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.

7. Write a short note on ASD.

Ans. Autism Spectrum Disorder (AS D) is a type of mental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact. It is a developmental disorder that affects normal brain functioning.

People with ASD have repetitive bchaviour patterns likc flicking a light switch repeatedly, flipping objects etc. 

Causes of ASD are as follows

(i) Genetic Factors. It can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations,

(ii) Abnormal Brain Development. It can also cause abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.

8. Explain the strategy of positive behavior in brief.

Ans. The strategy of positive behavior relates to showing a positive attitude and having healthy interactions with the children with special needs. The teachers should prevent negative behaviors and encourage these children to participate in classroom activities.

Teachers and parents of children with special needs should encourage more interaction with normal children to develop proper social behavior.

9. A child’s mother has the habit of washing her hands frequently. What kind of disorder might she be suffering from? Explain its symptoms.

Ans. Child’s mother is suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). It is a mental health condition that involves a debilitating obsession or compulsion, distressing actions and repetitive thoughts. The person feels the need to repeat the behavior over and over.

The symptoms of OCD are as follows:

  • Fear of being contaminated by germs or dirt or contaminating others.
  • Aggressive thoughts towards others or self.   Habitual of doing or having things in a perfect order always.
  • Repeatedly checking things and compulsive counting. Spending a considerable time in a day on their thoughts and behaviors.
  • A fear of being embarrassed.

10. What do you understand by the term disability? Explain any four disability etiquettes.    (CBSE 2020)

Ans. Disability means any kind of impairment or permanent reduction in physical or mental capacity of an individual. It can be a physical loss, mental illness or reduction in the use of sense organs.

Four methods of following disability etiquette are as follows

(i) Treating disabled people with care and lespect.

(ii) Educating normal people regarding disabilities,

(iii) Speak directly to the disabled person rather than through attendant or sign-language interpreter, who may also present

(iv) Never speak about  disabled person as if the person is invisible or can’t understand what is being said.

11. List the disability etiquette when dealing with a person who has speech difficulties.

Ans. Disability etiquettes for dealing with a person who has speech difficulties arc as follows:

Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.

  • Maintain a manner so as to encourage rather than correct.
  • Give extra time for the conversation with these people and be patient.
  • If you have difficulty in understanding, do not pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

12. List the disability etiquettes when dealing with a person with vision loss.

Ans. The etiquettes followed when dealing with a person with vision loss are as follows

If you are walking with a person who is blind, offer your arm for him to hold.

Walk at the normal pace. It is helpful to speak casually and naturally about the environment, objects and buildings you are passing as you walk.

Not all visually impaired people read Braille. Ask the person what alternative format they prefer.

Long Answer (LA) Type Questions

1. Explain physical disability and its symptoms in detail.

Ans. Physical disability is the long-term loss or impairment of a body part that limits the body’s physical function. A person with physical disability cannot perform many actions independently.

It may be a motor deficiency or a sensory impairment. Motor deficiency is related to spinal cord, causing paralysis to some or all parts of the body. It may also lead to brain damage, which may occur before or after birth or after a stroke.

On the other hand, sensory impairment is related to an individual’s visual or hearing impairments. The nature of this disability is physical as it is related to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organs. 

This refers to the limitation on a person’s physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina.

This includes upper or lower limb loss, poor mental dexterity, visual impairment, hearing loss or disability in coordination with different organs of the body. 

Apart from these, blindness, respiratory disorders, epilepsy and sleep disorders are also considered as physical disabilities.

Symptoms of Physical Disability:

  • Lack in any part of the body.
  • Problems related to senses such as sight, hearing or speech 
  • Lack of skills and missing developmental milestones.
  • Lack of control of the limbs or other body parts.

2. Five years old Saurabh is facing difficulty in reading the letters, he gets confused between lower case of b and d. Which disability is he suffering from? Explain.

Ans. Saurabh is suffering from cognitive disability. Cognitive disability is a disability that impacts an individual’s ability to access, process or remember information. 

It is a limitation to recognise, understand, interpret or respond to information. It can be due  developmental disabilities, brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease or even mental illness.

This type of disability can also be called an invisible disability because unlike other disabilities, a person may not be able to assess the condition by just looking at the individual. 

It is related to impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Intellectual functioning means a person’s ability to plan, comprehend and reason while adaptive behavior refers to applying social and practical skills in everyday life.

Children suffering from dyslexia, learning difficulties, speech disorders, problems in solving mathematical calculations, short span of attention and short memory are said to have cognitive disability.

3. Explain in detail OCD and ODD.

Ans. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 

It is a mental health condition that revolves around an obsession or compulsion, distressing actions and repetitive thoughts. 

People with OCD carry out routine tasks repeatedly. Instances of these are excessive hand washing, counting of things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked many tilnes etc.

Causes of OCD are as follows

(i) Familial Disorder. If any member of a family is suffering from OCD, then other members of the family have a high chance of developing it. It is also inherited from one generation to another. Hence, it is also genetic in nature.

(ii) Behavioral Causes. The behavioral theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help. reduce the tension or the stress related to that situation.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

It is a behavior disorder that usually takes place in early teens. It is characterized by an irritable mood, anger, argumentative behavior, disobeying, talking back and mood swings. Teenagers going through ODD face a number of behavioral problems.

Causes of ODD are as follows

(i) Genetics The most likely genetic component that leads a person to be more susceptible to developing oppositional defiant disorder, as opposed to a person who has not been exposed to the next type of genetics.

(ii) Environmental Similarly. If children are exposed to violence or have friends who behave in destructive, reckless manners, those children too are more likely to begin displaying behavioral symptoms that correlate with the onset of ODD.

(iii) Physical Neurotransmitters help in proper functioning of body activities, thus they should remain in imbalance states in our brain when an imbalance exists in our brain the symptoms of ODD may occur.

4. Is it always important to respect the dignity of the disabled people. In this context, explain the disability etiquettes in general.

Ans. Yes, it is essential to respect the dignity of the disabled people.

The disability etiquettes are as follows:

It is always important to respect the dignity of disabled people. So, talk to them with respect so that their self-esteem and confidence is built up.

Respect the individuality of the person. So avoid generalizing the disabled people and call them by their names.

Talk to the person and address him/her directly instead Of talking through a friend or an interpreter who may also be present there.

If you offer assistance, wait until the person responds. Then listen carefully to his/her instructions.

Do not speak about the disabled persons as if they are invisible or cannot understand what is being said.

Do not show extra attention or added care as it may give a feeling of sympathy. Treat them with the same attention and care as normal people.

5. Elaborate the disability etiquettes of dealing with people facing speech difficulties and language impairment.

Ans. The disability etiquettes for dealing people with speech difficulties and language impairment are mentioned below

  • Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  • Keep manners to encourage rather than correct.
  • Give extra time for the conversation with these people and be patient.
  • If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do, Repeat as much as you do understand.
  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.

6. Explain five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs. Or 

How physical activities are helpful for children with special needs? Explain strategies to make physical activities accessible for them. (CBSE 2020)

Ans. The five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs are as follows

(i) Medical Check-up.  If we want to make physical activities accessible for the children with special needs, we need to understand the type of disabilities of children and for this purpose complete medical check-up of the children is required.

(ii) Assistive Technology  It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings etc. This kind of new technology makes physical activities accessible for children with special needs.

(iii) Adaptive Physical Education. Adapted physical education means developing, implementing and monitoring a carefully designed physical education instructional programme for a learner with a disability.

(iv) Creating a Specific Environment. This means making a friendly atmosphere by keeping in mind the specific needs of the children with disability. In this way, it shows that they are also wanted in society and like other children of their age, they can also play.

(v) Activities based on Interests. Physical activities must be based on interest, aptitudes, abilities, previous experience and limitations of children with special needs, The teachers of physical education should have deep knowledge of limitations, interests and aptitudes of children.

Case Based Questions

1. Raju, Sheela and Mili visited their new friends living in a center for children with special needs. On the clay before visiting the center, they held a meeting with their school Physical Education teacher and learnt guidelines to deal with their special friends at the center. They were very much excited to meet them knowing how happy their friends would be.

Based on this case, answer the following questions.

(i) How does disability etiquette help people to interact with differently abled people?

Ans. Disability etiquette provides various guidelines on how to interact with differently abled people. This makes interaction easier and effective.

(ii) When did disability etiquettes come into existence?

Ans. There is no certain time period as to when it started but it is believed to come into existence in 1970.

2. A teacher in a preschool noticed that a child is not singing along with other children. She is not responding even when her name is called. Then the teacher asked the child to stand next to her and repeat the rhyme along with her, while she prompted and encouraged her. With effort the child was able to sing like other children of her age. 

Based on this case, answer the following questions.

(i) Which kind of disorder is it? What could have possibly caused this disorder ?

Ans. The disorder is sensory processing disorder. It is a type of disorder in which the brain has trouble receiving and responding. Genetic factors, neurological problems, accidents may have caused this disorder.

(ii) What are the symptoms of the disorder that is selected by you in question.

Ans. The disorder is SPD and its symptoms are trouble in receiving or responding to information, short attention span, delayed communication etc.

3. Rashi’s mother has the habit of washing her hands every few minutes and spends her entire day arranging things exactly the way she wants.

(i) How can the disorder of OCD be identified?

Ans. The disorder of OCD can be identified by seeing various symptoms like repetitive behaviors, distressing actions, debilitating obsessions or compulsions.

(ii) How do familial disorders cause OCD?

Ans. If parents or family members suffer from OCD, then other family members are also likely to develop it. It may be inherited from one generation to another also.

Physical Education and sports for CWSN chapter 4 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has. You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about ncert cbse class 12 Physical Education notes of chapter 4 Physical Education and sports for CWSN. We hope that this crisp and latest Physical Education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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