Physiology And Sports | Chapter 7 Notes

Physiology And Sports

Physiology and sports are about improving performance by knowing how our body works during exercise. By using scientific principles we can train our bodies in a better and effective way.

Our body has a complex function of various body systems. We need proper functioning of various systems, which makes us more efficient.

Physiology deals with the function of the body system and its effects. Through regular exercise, the physiological function of the body system can be improved and thus body efficiency increases a lot.

physiology and sports

Physiological Factors Determining Strength

Strength is the ability to overcome resistance.

  • Muscle Covering: The sarcolemma covering increases the muscle cross-sectional area and helps in strength component
  • Size of the muscle: Every muscle is of different size. Long muscles have more potential to generate strength as compared to small muscles.
  • Muscular contraction: Concentric and Eccentric muscular contraction regulates our muscular action in controlled manner
  • Neuromuscular response: Impulses produced by Nervous System controls muscle contraction.
  • White muscle fibres: White muscle fibres have more connective tissues and they bring fast and strong contraction
  • Age: Strength of muscles is maximum in age between 20- 40 years
  • Gender: Male have more strength as compared to female.

Physiological Factors Determining Endurance

Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue

  • Maximum Oxygen Intake ( VO2 Max ): More amount of oxygen taken up and utilized during exercise will improve endurance capacity
  • Pulmonary Diffusion: It is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and the blood. More and faster this diffusion improves endurance
  • Cardiac Output: Ability of heart to pump out in one minutes. More output helps to circulate blood to working tissues, thus endurance is enhanced
  • Lactic acid tolerance: More lactic acid tolerance delays fatigue and tiredness, which improves endurance
  • Energy reserve: The endurance capacity depends upon the muscle glycogen and sugar level. More energy reserve enhances endurance capacity
  • Red muscle fibre: The red muscle fibre ( slow twitch muscle fibre ) can carry more oxygen, thus helps Aerobic endurance.
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Physiological Factors Determining Speed

Speed is the ability to do work at a faster rate

  • Fast twitch muscle fibre: The greater the percentage of fast twitch fibre faster is the speed
  • Neuromuscular response: Higher and faster the neuromuscular response, faster and stronger the muscular contraction, which increases speed
  • Flexibility: Higher the range of movement determines higher speed.
  • ATP energy store: More ATP ( Phosphogen) stores, faster is the energy release, which helps to improve speed

Physiological Factors Determining Flexibility

Flexibility is the ability of joints to move in the maximum range.

  • Joint structure: Joint attached to various muscles, ligaments, cartilages and tendons, which makes the joint strong and flexible.
  • Ligament Elasticity: Ligament connects two bones.  More the elasticity of ligament, greater is the flexibility of joints
  • Age and gender: Flexibility decreases as the age progresses. Females are more flexible than males.
  • Diseases: Many types of diseases and injuries affect flexibility. 

Effect of exercises on various systems

Exercises are an integral part of our life. It increases various demands on our body, as a result, our body starts compensating demand by increasing muscle tissues and neural connections.

Exercises Physiology optimises our body’s cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, muscular, and endocrine systems.

Effect On Cardiovascular System

  • Increase the size of heart: With regular exercises enlargement of heart take place, as a result stroke volume increases.
  • Increase Cardiac Output: Exercises increase the Cardiac output which increases the blood flow. More blood is pumped out
  • Resting Pulse Rate Decrease: Regular exercises decrease the resting Pulse Rate, as a result heart gets more resting time
  • Increase in haemoglobin: Exercises increase haemoglobin content in blood, which can carry more oxygen
  • Decrease Blood Pressure: Regular exercises decrease blood pressure by upto 10mm Hg at rest
  • Faster healing: The increased blood circulation makes healing faster
  • Reduction in Cholesterol: Exercises reduce cholesterol level of the blood which reduces heart attack risk
  • New Capillaries are formed: Regular exercises develop new Capillaries. This brings more blood to working tissues.
  • Return to normal pulse quickly: The pulse return to normal quickly 

Effect on Respiratory System

  • Increase in tidal volume: With regular exercises tidal volume and vital capacity of lung increase, by which more oxygen reaches to working tissues.
  • Increase in Aerobic Endurance: With regular exercise less amount of lactic acid is produced which results delayed fatigue
  • Decrease in rate of respiration: Regular exercises decrease respiration during rest
  • Improves Metabolic System: Exercises increase metabolic reaction for energy production with less consumption of oxygen.
  • Respiratory muscle become strong: The respiratory muscles become strong to work for longer duration
  • Resistance power increases: Regular exercises improves our immune system, thus common health problems like cold, cough, Asthma, etc can be prevented
  • Increase in Residual Air Volume: Residual Air is the amount of air left in the lungs after exhalation. Exercises increase Residual Air capacity.
  • Increase number of Alveoli: Exercises increase number of Alveoli and activates unused alveoles 

Effect on Muscular System

  • Change in shape and size of muscle: Regular exercises change shape and size of muscle, thus improves muscular capacity.
  • Faster recovery from injury: Trained muscle can recover from injury fast
  • Formation of more Capillaries: Exercises increase number of Capillaries, which helps faster blood circulation
  • Delays fatigue: Regular exercises increase the ability of muscles to tolerate more lactic acid for longer duration, which delays muscle tiredness.
  • Faster response: In trained muscle, the stimulus travel faster, thus muscle actions and responses are faster.
  • Efficient use of diet: Trained muscles can efficiently use all nutrients
  • Desired strength develop: Systematic and scientific training can develop the desired strength and endurance
  • Better Neuromuscular Coordination: Regular exercises improves the neuromuscular coordination by which various skills can be performed efficiently
  • Increase in Aerobic and anaerobic endurance: Trained muscles have more Aerobic endurance, therefore, capacity of muscle increase to work for longer duration without fatigue

Sports Injuries

physiology and sports

In sports, injuries are common and they can occur to anyone and at any time. Injury causes damage to any internal and external parts, which affects the health of individuals. It can be classified as:

Soft Tissue Injuries: Skin injuries and muscle injuries

Hard Tissue Injuries: Fracture and dislocation

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Soft Tissue Injuries

Contusion

It happens due to direct hit by any solid thing. In contusion blood vessels in the muscle are broken and sometimes bleeding may occur. 

Stiffness and swelling are common features at the site of contusion 

Abrasion

Abrasion occurs due to friction or fall over the area where the bone is very close to the skin. 

When someone falls on the ground, layers of skin rub off due to friction. It generally occurs on a rough surface.

Bruises

Bruises are not seen because the upper skin remains unaffected, but inner tissues are damaged. Beneath the skin blood collects near the surface skin. 

Bruises appear reddish at the beginning and turn blue after a few hours

Strain

Strain is a muscle injury which can be mild as well as severe. It is a tearing of a muscle or a tissue connecting muscle to bone (tendon).

It occurs usually due to fatigue, overuse, or improper use of a muscle. Strains can happen in any muscle, sometimes complete muscle gets raptured.

Chronic strains are usually caused by moving the muscles and tendons in repetitions.

Sprain

It is a ligament injury. It occurs due to overstretched or tearing of the ligament. Falling on ground, twisting or getting hit can force a point out of its normal position. 

In this injury swelling, inflammation and severe pain are common symptoms.Generally sprain occurs at write and ankle joints.

First Aid and Management of Soft Tissue Injuries

The treatment referred to as PRICER

P = Protection, R = Rest, I = Ice, C= Compression,

E = Elevation, R= Rehabilitation

Rest: Completely restrict the movement

Compression: Bandage should be applied to reduce swelling

Elevation: Elevate the affected part above the level of the heart

Rehabilitation: Perform some exercise to regain strength

Hard Tissue Injuries

( Bones and joint injuries)

Dislocation

It is a joint injury. In this injury the ends of bones are forced out from the normal position. This type of injury is very painful, it temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joints. Dislocation is most common in the shoulders and fingers.

A dislocation occurs in contact sports or sports which involves falls like gymnastics, wrestling, football, etc.

  • Dislocation of Shoulder joint: Dislocation of Shoulder joint may occur due to sudden jerk or fall on the hard surface. The end of the numerous comes out from the socket.
  • Dislocation of Wrist: A miscalculated landing can cause a dislocated wrist, especially when a person uses his hand to stop his fall.

Fracture

A fracture is a complete, partial break or cracks in a bone. There are many types of fractures occurs

  • Simple Fracture: In this Fracture bone is broken at one place without any wound
  • Compound fractures: In this Fracture skin and muscles are also damage along with fractures
  • Complicated Fracture: In this Fracture a bone is broken and damages the internal organs.
  • Green stick Fractures: This kind of fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks. These fractures are generally seen in children because their bones are very soft and delicate. Whenever there is any stress on the bone, it is bent.
  • Comminuted Fracture: When any bone is broken into three or more pieces.

First Aid

First aid is the first help that is given to the wounded or accidental victim before taking him to the hospital. It is temporary and immediate care given to a victim of an accident or sudden illness.

Objectives of First Aid

? To preserve life: Every possible effort is done to save the life of a wounded person with the help of First Aid.

? To Alleviate pain: Major objective is to reduce unbear pain

? To prevent the condition from worsening: It provides to prevent the condition from worsening before he gets the help of doctor

? To promote recovery: It is given to start the process  recovery as early as possible

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Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

1.Sprain is a

a. Joint injury

b. Muscle injury

c. Bone injury

d. Ligament injury

2. Injury occur due to friction is

a. Abrasion

b. Contusion

c. Bruises

3. Most common fracture in children is

a. Red stick Fracture

b. Green stick Fracture

c. Blue sick Fracture

d. Yellow stick Fracture

4. Which is not an effect of exercise on respiratory system

a. Strong willpower

b. Increase tidal volume

c. Increase residual volume

d. Increase stroke volume

5. Physiological factor determine Strength is

a. Explosive strength

b. Aerobic capacity

c. Anaerobic capacity

d. Body weight

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions

1. Define Physiology. Why Physiology is important in sports

Ans. Physiology is defined as the branch of science that deals  with the functioning of the organs and their relationships with other organ systems to maintain functioning of the human body.

Physiology  is essential to understand how to attain physical fitness in order to enhance the performance in sports by improving the functions of the body.

It facilitates the profiling and monitoring of specific parameters relevant to optimize sports performance. Physiology is also important to understand sports activities alter the structure and functioning of our body.

2. Discuss the different factors that determine strength as a component of physical fitness

Ans. The factors determining strength as a component of physical fitness are as follows.

(i) Size of the Muscle. The size of the muscle determines the strength possessed by an individual. Males have bigger and larger muscles due to which they have more strength than females.

(ii) Muscle Composition. Muscles consist of two types of fibers i.e. fast twitch fibers (white fibers) and slow twitch fibers (red fibers). The fast twitch fibers are capable of contracting faster and therefore they can produce more force.

On the contrary, the slow twitch fibers are not capable of contracting faster but they are capable of controlling for a longer duration.

Muscles containing more percentage of fast twitch fibers produce more strength. The percentage of fast and slow twitch fibres is genetically determined and cannot be changed through training.

(iii) Intensity of the Nerve Impulse. A muscle consists of many motor units. The number of contracting motor units determines the total force. If muscles contract with greater intensity then more strength will be produced.

3. Discuss the physiological factors determining flexibility.

Ans. The physiological factors determining flexibility are as follows

(i) Joint Structure. The joint structure of a person determines the range of     and hence level the flexibility of an individual.

Fov example, the ball and socket joint of the shoulder has the greater range of motion in comparison to the knee joint.

(ii) Age and Gender. The age of a person as well as the gender determines the level of flexibility. It can be enhanced with the help of training as strength and endurance are enhanced, flexibility decreases with advancement of age and females are more flexible than males.

(iii) Stretchability of Muscles. If the muscles are regularly stretched, then they remain flexible. The stretchability of muscles depends on the amount of exercises and physical activities.

4. Explain the difference between oxygen intake and oxygen uptake.

Ans. The difference between oxygen intake and oxygen uptake is given below

Oxygen IntakeOxygen Uptake
It is the amount of oxygen which can be drawn into the lungs from the atmosphereIt is the amount of oxygen which can be absorbed or consumed by the working muscle from the blood 
It depends upon size of the chest strength of respiratory muscles, long size number of active album releases etc.It depends on the rate of diffusion of oxygen into the blood which is for the determined by the speed of blood flow, blood temperature and the partial pressure of oxygen in blood

5. Discuss three effects of exercise on the muscular system of our body.

Ans. The effects of exercise on the muscular system are as follows:

I. Increase in lactate threshold. Exercise increases the ability of the muscles to tolerate lactic acid this increases endurance as the working capacity of the muscle Rises and muscles work for longer duration without fatigue 

II. Increase in muscle mass. Regular exercise and physical activities increase the muscle mass of a person does making him stronger filter and healthy hair

III. Muscle coordination. Frequent exercise and special use of specific muscles for the same or similar skill task like dribbling a ball in a game of football leads to improved coordination. The coordination of nerves to skeletal muscles also improves.

6. Explain the redistribution of blood flow in our body during exercise and rest.

Ans. During exercise the requirement of oxygen by the active muscle goes up by 10 to 12 times. From 1200 ml/minute at rest, it can go up to 12500 ML / minute at maximum exercise.  Similarly the requirement of the skin causes from 500ml per minute to 1900 ml/ minute during maximal exercise.

This increase can be accomplished through increased cardiac output and distribution of blood from areas of the body like the Kidneys,  abdomen and other areas. 

For instance, at rest the blood flow through the Kidneys is 1100 ml/minute,  which can be reduced to 600 ml/minute during exercise. Similarly the blood flow at rest through the abdomen is 1400 ml per minute, which can be reduced to 600 ml/minute during exercise. 

7. What are sports injuries? What are the two kinds of injuries ?

Ans. A sports injury may be defined as damage to the tissues of the body that occurs as a result of sport or exercise.

They are commonly caused by overuse, direct impact, or the application of force that is greater than the force that a body part can structurally withstand.

There are two kinds of sports injuries i.e. acute and chronic. Acute injury is an injury  that occurs suddenly, such as sprained ankle caused by an awkward landing while chronic injury is caused by repeated overuse of muscle groups or joints.

Poor technique and structural abnormalities can also contribute to the development of chronic injuries.

8. What is contusion? What are its causes and preventive measures?

Ans. A contusion is a bruise caused by a direct blow or repeated blows, crushing underlying muscle fibers and connective tissue without breaking the skin. It is conunon in boxing.

Contusion is caused due to repeated blows which causes accumulation of blood around the injury and it discolors the skin,  Preventive measures are that players should wear protective  equipment. They should perform warming ups. They should learn correct techniques and  be cautious and alert

9. What is the difference between laceration and Incision? What first-aid should be used to treat them ?

Ans. Laceration and incision are both a cut on the epidermis layer of skin due to a severe impact by a sharp object. The difference is that, in laceration there is irregular break in the skin but in incision there is sharp, straight or diagonal cut on the skin.

The first-aid used for treating laceration/incision is

  • Clean the surface of the cut with water.
  • Apply antiseptic cream and bandage.
  • If there is bleeding, then cover it with cotton or bandage and press to stop bleeding.

10. Explain briefly strain and sprain.

Ans. Strain and sprain are two common soft tissue injuries. Strain is caused due to twist, pull or tear of the muscles or tendons with symptoms of pain, swelling and loss of muscle strength.

On the other hand, sprain is a partial or complete tear of a ligament with symptoms of pain, swelling, bruising, loss of function. Both are caused due to weak muscular systems or insufficient warming up.

Strains often take place in the lower back region and back of the thigh area. Sprain usually takes place in the knee and ankle regions.

11. Mention briefly about the common sports injuries and their prevention. (CBSE 2018)

Ans. Some of the common sports injuries are abrasion, contusion, strain, sprain, fractures, dislocations, etc.

The two common injuries are as follows

(i) Strain. It is defined as an injury to a tendon (tissues that connect your muscles and bones) or muscle. It often occurs in the lower back and in the muscle in the back of the thigh.

Prevention

Develop a balanced fitness program that incorporates cardiovascular exercises, strength, training and flexibility.

(ii) Stress Fracture. It is an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb added shock.

Prevention

Conditioning exercises during practice strengthens muscles.

12. What do you understand by fracture? Explain three first aid techniques for fractures.

Ans. Fracture is a bone injury that breaks the continuity of a bone or separates it into two or more parts.

The first aid techniques for fractures are as follows

  • Immediately immobilized the injured area do not try to realign the bone or push back in a bone that may be sticking out
  • Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until medical help arrives.
  • Attempt to make the area as safe as possible by removing the patient from the danger and calling a specialist for help.

13. What do you understand by first-aid? Discuss briefly about the aims and objectives of first-aid. (CBSE 2018)

Ans. First-aid is the assistance given to any person suffering from a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening and promote recovery.

Aim and objectives of first-aid are as follows

  • Preserving life by carrying out emergency first aid procedures. It also includes the life of a first aider’s life.
  • Preventing the casualty’s condition from deteriorating any further.
  • Promoting recovery by arranging prompt emergency medical help.
  • Providing relief to the wounded person from pain and suffering is another important objective of first aid.

14. Explain the first-aid procedure for minor wounds and cuts.

Ans. First-aid procedure for minor wounds and cuts are as follows:

  • Wash hands or wear sterile disposable gloves.
  • Clean the surface of the cut or the wound with water.
  • If there is a minor cut, then apply antiseptic cream or lotion to the affected part.
  • If there is bleeding, then cover the wound with cotton or bandage and press to stop bleeding or raise the affected area above the heart level.
  • If the cut is deep then take it to the doctor immediately for stitches.

Long Answer (LA) Type Questions

1. What are the various factors affecting physiological fitness? Explain. (All India 2015) Or 

Discuss the physiological factors determining components of physical fitness. (Delhi 2015)

Ans. Physiological factors determining components of physical fitness are as follows

(i) Muscular Strength. This is the maximum force or tension a muscle or a muscle group can exert against a resistance. Physiologically, the muscle will increase in strength only if it has to increase its workload beyond what is ordinarily required of it,

(ii) Speed. This is the rapidity with which one can repeat successive movements of the same pattern. Individuals with greater speed have superior reaction time.

(iii) Endurance. This is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a resistance / load or to sustain contraction for an extended period of time with less discomfort and more rapid recovery.

(iv) Flexibility. This is a quality of the muscles, ligaments and tendons that enables joint of the body to move easily through a complete range of movement.

2. Discuss the factors determining speed 

Ans. The factors determining     are  

(i) Bio-chemical Reserves and Metabolic power. For maximum speed performance the muscle requires more energy at a very high rate of consumption. 

For this work the first Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) stores in the muscles should be enough. 

If ATP and CP stored is less in contracting muscles in the muscle, contraction due to insufficient energy supply becomes slow after a short time.

The metabolic power depends upon the energy supplied through certain enzymes. Proper working of enzymes names high rate of metabolism which increases speed of doing work

(ii) Muscle Composition. Muscles consist of two types of fibers i.e. fast twitch fibers (white fibers) and slow twitch fibers (red fibers). A person containing more of fast twitch fibers will have greater speed.

(iii) Mobility of the Nervous System. The rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles takes place due to rapid excitation of the nervous system. The rapid movements give greater speed.

The nervous system can maintain this rapid excitation and inhibition only for a few seconds after which the excitation spreads to the neighboring centers causing tension in the entire body. This results in a decrease in speed.

3. What are the effects of exercising on the cardiorespiratory system? Explain.    (CBSE 2020)

Or 

A trainer can improve the cardiorespiratory system  with the help of exercise. Justify this statement.

Ans. The cardiorespiratory system consists of organs responsible for taking in oxygen for respiration and releasing carbon dioxide and water vapor, which are the waste products formed during respiration.

The passages in the nose, windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs and air sacs are the main organs of the respiratory system,

A trainer can improve the cardiorespiratory system with the help of exercise by

(i) Decrease in Rate of Respiration. When a beginner starts exercise, then his rate of respiration increases• But when the same individual performs exercise daily, then his rate of respiration decreases in comparison to the beginning stage at rest.

(ii) Lung Volume. For normal breathing at rest, lungs expand and there is a change in air pressure. During exercise, due to rapid movement of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, total area of lung expands to accommodate more exchange of gases.

(iii) Lung Diffusion Capacity. During exercise, the lung diffusion capacity increases in both trained and untrained persons. However, trained athletes may increase their diffusion capacity 30% more than that of an untrained person because the athlete’s lung surface area and red blood cell count is higher than that of non-athletes.

(iv) Pulmonary Ventilation. The amount of air passing through lungs each minute is called Pulmonary Ventilation.

The Pulmonary Ventilation (PV) is a produced of Tidal Volume (TV) and Respiratory Rate (RR) and therefore at rest it is around 8 1/min.

During exercise time both TV and RR increase, due to which PV will also increase depending on the intensity of exercise. For an ordinary person, the value of PV may be 40-50 1/min and for a well trained athlete, it may be around 100 1/min.

(v) Residual Air Volume. It is the volume of air in the lungs which is left after exhalation. With exercises, the residual air capacity increases which enhances efficiency of lungs.

4. What do you understand by fracture? How can fractures be classified? Explain.

Ans. Fracture is defined as a loss of continuity in the substance of a bone. It is simply a break in the bone. It commonly happens because of accidents, falls, or sports injuries. It is classified into different types, which are discussed as follows     

(i) Stress Fracture. A stress fracture is an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb added shock. Eventually, the fatigued muscle transfers the overload of stress to the bone causing a tiny crack, called a stress fracture.

(ii) Greenstick Fracture. A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks, instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. Most greenstick fractures occur in children younger than 10 years of age. This type of broken bone most commonly occur in children because their bones are softer and more flexible than are the bones of adults.

(iii) Comminuted Fracture. It is a break or splinter of the bone into more than two fragments. Since considerable force and energy is required to fragment bone, fractures of this kind occur after high-impact trauma such as vehicular accidents.

This type of fracture is usually challenging to treat because the break is so complex,

(iv) Transverse Fracture. It is a fracture where the bone breaks at a right angle to the long axis of the bone. Transverse fractures most often occur as the result of strong force applied perpendicular to the long axis of a bone.

(v) Oblique Fracture. An oblique fracture is characterized by a break that is curved or at an angle to the bone. A sharp blow that comes from an angle (i.e., above or below) may cause oblique fractures.

(vi) Impacted Fracture An impacted fracture is one whose ends are driven into each other. This commonly occurs with arm fractures in children and is sometimes  as a buckle fracture.

5. Write in detail about the dislocation and fractures among the bones and joint injuries.

Ans. The dislocation and fractures among the bones and joints happen when excessive force is applied directly or indirectly These are musculoskeletal injuries and can be grouped under hard tissue injury.

A dislocation refers to displacement or separation of bones from the joint. It is caused by a sudden impact, a trauma or a fall.

A dislocated joint may be accornpaniecl by numbness or tingling at the joint or beyond it. It is intensely painful, especially if you try to use joints or put weight on it. Some of the common joint injuries are shoulder dislocation, knee cap dislocation, finger dislocation etc. 

A fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone or a separation of a bone in two or more parts. It is caused when greater force is exerted against a bone than it can actually sustain. The different types of fractures are stress fracture, green stick, comminuted, transverse, oblique and impacted. The first aid is very essential in managing bone and joint injuries.

Case Based Questions

1. On seeing a sharp cut on his friend’s finger, Arun rushed bandages and v.ipes. Imagining the scene in your mind, answer the following questions.

(i) Explain why you have chosen the answer in question 1

Ans. Incision is the selected answer as it is a sharp cut on the skin that cuts into tissues, blood vessels, muscles or tendons. It can cause bleeding so Arun rushing with bandages and ‘Wipes show that it is an incision.

(ii) What kind of injury is Laceration?

Ans. Laceration is the tearing of the skin that results in an irregular wound. It is a soft tissue injury.

2. The Godavari School attended a CBSE Cluster Basketball Tournament. During the semi-final match arun, one of the players fell down and was injured on the shoulder. He was immediately given first aid by the coach Mr. Rahul, who had the knowledge of first aid. Warm-up session is essential for players to avoid any serious injuries during the match.

(i) What do you mean by first-aid?

Ans. First-aid is the assistance given to any person suffering from a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening and/or promote recovery.

(ii) Which type of sports injury is known as ‘strain’? (CBSE 2019)

Ans. A strain is defined as an injury to a tendon or muscle. It often occurs in the lower back and in the thighs.

3. Mr. Raghav, aged 45 years was advised by his doctor to exercise regularly and take care of his dietary habits. This advice was given keeping in view his advancing age and sedentary working profile. Considering his lifestyle answer the following questions

(i) What is stroke volume?    (All India 2016)

Ans. The volume of blood pumped into the heart with every heartbeat is known as the stroke volume. In an untrained male, it is 50 to 70 ml/beat.

(ii) Explain the meaning of cardiac output. (CBSE 2018)

Ans. Cardiac output is the term that describes the amount of blood your heart pumps each minute.


Physiology and sports chapter 7 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

Final Words

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