Planning In Sports | Chapter 1 Notes

Planning in sports chapter 1 cbse class 12 physical education notes. This cbse physical education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

Planning In Sports

Planning In Sports can be understood as the process of making a sequence of work for a future line of action. It can also be termed as instruction of guidelines for future course of action.

Introduction Of Planning

Planning comprises the process of setting goals developing and schedules to accomplish the goals.

In simple words planning is deciding in advance as to what, where, how and by whom it is to be performed.

Mitchell: ” Planning is usually interpreted as a process to develop a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate actions”

Evelyn: “ A plan is a trap laid to capture the futures”

Objectives of Planning

planning in sports

Reduce Pressure With proper planning tasks can be performed effectively. It also will reduce unnecessary pressure.

Proper Coordinator Planning facilitates coordination among various members of committees

Reduce mistakes Complete reduction of mistakes is not possible, with proper planning this can be minimised.

Increase efficiency of officials Planning helps officials to do their assigned work more efficiently and effectively.

Enhance creativity- It enhances creativity, many new ideas are brought when they make plans together.

Enhance performance Planning always enhances performance of officials, sportsmen, etc. who are engaged in tournaments or any kind of activity

Good control over activities Through proper planning every work is done in a controlled manner. 

Enhance Quality- Planning in sports increases the quality of work.

Various Committees and their Responsibilities

planning in sports


Director or Chairman (Head of the institution)

👉 Pre Work– To plan for tournament and arrange the finance

👉 During Work– Look after overall arrangements, welcoming guests.
👉 Post Work – To summarise the success of the tournament.

Organising Secretary (PET / HOD sports)

Pre Work : To do all planning and get approval and to make all arrangements.

🏂 During Work: To co-ordinator with different committee members and to check the authenticity of players.

🏄 Post Work: To make the final report and to gives vote of thanks.

Publicity Committee: (Marketing staff)

☎ To announce dates, venues, events and provide information to various institutions.

Transportation Committee

🚃 Pre Work: To plan for pick up and dropping of arriving teams.

🚄During Work: To provide transportation for all outstation teams.

Post Work: To drop outstation teams to station, airport

Boarding & Lodging Committee: (Warden/Bursar)

🏫 Pre Work: To get details of outstation teams, arrange rooms and bedding.

🏣During Work: To arrange meals and comfortable stay for teams without disturbing their match schedule.

Post Work: To collect and return borrowed items.

Reception Committee: (Office Staff)

😘 Pre Work: To check team details and arrange all required items.

🎎 During Work: To receive teams, check all proformas and provide important information about team stay and tournament schedule.

🎁 Post Work: To check and refund security amounts and hand over certificates.

Decorations & Ceremony Committee: (Art & Craft Teacher)

🎀 Pre Work: Arrange requirements and decorates for opening and closing ceremonies.

🎏 During Work: To manage guests, officials during opening and closing ceremony, give ceremonial welcome speeches and finalize prize distribution sequences.

🎇 Post Work: Return everything to various departments

Ground & Equipment Committee: (Coordinator/Bursar)

Pre Work: To arrange play fields and technical requirements like equipment, score sheets, official tables.

🏀 During Work: To provide equipment and manage needful facilities

🎾 Post Work: To collect all equipment and return

Refreshment & Entertainment Committee:

🍜 Pre Work: Arrange food and entertainment program

🍟 During Work: Supply refreshment to guests, officials and team members and organise entertainment programs during opening and closing ceremonies.

Announcement Committee

🎤 Pre Work: To prepare script, arrange and check public address system

📢 During Work: To make important announcements and do running commentary of every match.

First Aid Committee: ( Doctor & nurses)

💉 Pre Work: To arrange medical equipments, medicines and tool 

💊 During Work: To provide first aid and medical aid to injured and sick players.

Finance Committee: (Accountant)

🛃 Pre Work: To get details of expenses from various committees and get sanctions from higher authorities

💰 During Work: To provide funds for various activities and committee

🏧 Post Work: Makes financial reports of the tournament.

Press & Media Committee: (Language Teachers)

🎬 Pre Work: To inform media about tournament

📷 During Work: To make daily reports for press notes and coordinate with media persons.

🎥 Post Work: To highlight the main features of tournaments.

Certificate Committee: 

📝 Pre Work: To collect blank certificates from the organising secretary and get important instructions for filling.

📝 During Work: To write participation certificates for all teams, write merit certificates for winning teams and maintain records.

📝 Post Work: To return unused certificates.

👉Click Here To Learn Planning In Sports MCQ, Assertion/Reason MCQ and Case Study MCQ👈

Click Below To Learn Term-1 Syllabus MCQs


Tournament is a healthy competition to decide winners and top ranked teams. A tournament provides a good platform to showcase the talents of different skills, techniques, tactics and strategies.

It also provides evaluation and comparison of different teams. 

Tournament is an inspiration and encouragement for players.

Importance of Tournament

  • Development of sports skills
  • Publicity of sports
  • Helpful in Talent identification
  • Development of Social Qualities
  • Development of National and International integration
  • Good source of recreation for teams
  • Provides good feedback

Types of Tournament

The type of Tournament depends upon various factors like fund available, time periods, infrastructure, staff, facilities, level of teams etc.

There are mainly three types of major Tournament happens

  • Knockout or single elimination tournament
  • League or Round Robin Tournament
  • Combination Tournament
    • Knock out cum League
    • Knockout cum knockout
    • League cum knockout
    • League cum League or double league

Knock Out Tournament

In knock out tournament only winning teams continue to play further and teams once get defeated, automatically get eliminated.

Advantages of Knockout

  • Less expensive
  • Requires less time
  • Strong team emerges winner
  • Less tiredness of players
  • Spectator interest is high

Disadvantages of Knockout

  • Good team may get eliminated
  • Good selection of players are very tough
  • High stress on players

Things to remember

Number of matches (Number of teams-1). Suppose number of teams are 8, so total number of matches are 8-1 = 7

🐒 Halves

Two equal halves, in case; number of teams are in even numbers, like 6, 8,10 etc. For example, 8 teams divided into two halves of 4 each.

In case of odd number teams, then apply formula 

Upper Halve = N+1/2 = 9+1/2 = 5

Lower Halve =    N-1/2 = 9-1/2 = 4

Example: 10 teams; 5+5 two equal halves, 13 teams; 7 in upper halve and 6 in lower halve.

🙋 Bye: [ 4,8,16,32,64 …]

It is an opportunity to play matches in the higher rounds directly without playing in the first round.

If the number of participating teams are in “power of 2” like 2²;2×2 = 4, 2³; 2x2x2 = 8, 2⁴; 2x2x2x2 = 16, 2x2x2x2x2 = 32 etc. Then there is no need to give Bye.

In case the number of teams are not in “power of 2″ then subtract from nearest ” power of 2″, like 4,8,16,32,64 etc. For instance, if no. of teams are 10 then subtract 10 from 16 (16-10) = 6 byes will be given to six different teams.

More examples:  

For 13 teams; 16-13=3 byes, 

For 5 teams; 8-5=3 byes, 

For 17 teams; 32-17=15 byes, 

For 27 teams; 32-27=5 byes

For 33 teams; 64-33=31 byes

It is best to divide the number of Byes to both upper and lower halves equally. But in case of odd numbers the lower halve will have one more Bye than the upper halve.

Example: For 9 teams, Number of Byes are (16-9)7.  Upper halves will get one extra Bye, that means out of 7 Byes 4 byes will be given to upper halves and 3 byes will be given to Lower halves.

Formula for distributing Byes

Example For 9 teams ( No of Byes; 16-9= 7)

Upper Halve = No. of Byes -1/2 = 7-1/2 = 3 Byes 

Lower Halve =    No. of Byes +1/2 = 7+1/2 = 4 Byes

👐 Number of Rounds:

Find number of rounds from nearest number of “power of 2”. Example; For 14 teams, no. of rounds will be 4, as nearest number of power of 2 is 2⁴ (2x2x2x2)

Click Below To Learn Term-1 Syllabus MCQs


Seeding Knockout Tournament

Seeding means placing the good teams (Previous position holders) directly to higher rounds may be to quarter final or semifinals. Teams need to place on top and lower position of each halves. 


League or Round Robin Tournament

In this type of tournament, every team plays with every other team in their pool, irrespective of win, lose or draw. It provide maximum number of opportunities to show the best performance.

Advantages of League Tournament

  • Team get ample opportunities
  • True winner emerge
  • Team can improve their performance in next match
  • Skilled selection is possible
  • Players’ interest remain intact

Disadvantages of League Tournament

  • Time consuming
  • It needs large arrangements
  • Very expensive
  • Less interest of spectators
  • Demoralized weak team due to repeated loss

League Fixtures

Cyclic Method

In this method fixtures are made using Cyclic Method. One team is fixed on the top right hand side and teams move in ascending order consecutively downward and then move upward on the left side.

In case of odd numbers a bye is fixed in place of one, Other numbers will move in ascending order.


Staircase Method

In this method fixtures are made like a staircase. This method is considered as the easiest method.

A team gets maximum points in a tournament, declared the winner. Winner of the match gets 2 points. Loser gets 0 and for draw 1 point is awarded to both teams.


Combination Tournament

This type of Tournaments are usually conducted when the number of teams are more. Teams are divided into various halves depends upon number of teams. Either two halves, four halves, six halves etc.

The team belonging to the concerned group play among themselves in either knockout or league basis and decide the winner of the group.

Thereafter the group winners play among themselves and decide the champion.

Types of Combination Tournament:

  • Knock out – League
  • Knock out – knock out
  • League – league (Double league)
  • League – knock out

Knockout Cum League fixture

Total number of teams are divided into four pools. Every team in their respective pools will play in knockout basis. Winner of each pools will again play together in league basis


League Cum Knockout

Total number of teams are divided into four pools. Every team, in their respective pools, will play with each other in league basis. Winner of each pools will again play together in knockout basis


Click Below To Learn Term-1 Syllabus MCQs

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Choice Question

  1. To calculate the total no of teams in the upper half for knock out tournaments, when total no of teams is odd, which formula is used?

a. N+1/2

b. N – 1

c. N(2+1)/2

d. (N+1)2/2

2. The other name for League Tournament is-

a. Round Robin Tournament

b. Knock out Tournament

c. Combination Tournament

d. Challenge Tournament

3. For the successful organization of the sports meet, committees are formed under three heads. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

a. First-meet committee

b. Pre-meet committee

c. During-meet committee

d. Post-meet committee

4. How many byes will be given for 21 teams on the knock out basis?

a. 11

b. 16

c. 14

d. 17

5. Which of the following is not an objective of planning in sports?

a. Training of empires and coaches

b. Timely achievement of the target

c. Distribution of work

d. Finding out the causes of failure

5. Name the type of tournament in which the defeated team gets eliminated and does not have another chance to play.

a. Knockout

b. League

c. Bye

d. Challenging

6. In the placement of Byes, IV Bye is given to whom?

a. 1st Team of lower half

b. 1st team of upper half

c. Last team of lower half

d. Last team of upper half

7. Privilege given to a team that exempts it from playing in the 1st round is-

a. Bye

b. Seeding

c. Fixture

d. Special seeding

8. Which of the following is not a type of tournament?

a. Fixture

b. Knockout

c. League

d. Challenging Tournament

Final Words

From the above article you must have learnt about cbse class 12 physical education notes of chapter 1 Planning in sports. We hope that this crisp and latest cbse physical education class 12 notes will definitely help you in your exam.

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