Test And Measurement | Chapter 6 Notes | 2022-23

Test And Measurement

Test and measurement is the instrument for getting essential details regarding the needs, capacities, abilities and attitudes of students or sportspersons.

Every task and work needs to be evaluated. Evaluation is based uIpon test and measurement. This is very important to check the progress of an individual.

Test provides data or scores which can be measured and evaluated. A test helps to collect data which can be evaluated for further improvement.

In Physical Education Tests are used to collect information or data about a specific skill, strength, endurance, knowledge and attitude. And Measurement is related to measuring size, height, weight, vital capacity, achievement, etc.

SAI Khelo India Fitness Test in school

Age group 5-8yrs/ class 1-3

BMI, Flamingo Balance Test, Plate Tapping Test

Age group 9-18yrs/ class 4-12

BMI, 50mt Speed test, 600mt Run/Walk, Sit & Reach flexibility test, Strength Test (Abdominal Partial Curl Up, Push-Ups for boys, Modified Push-Ups for girls).

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What does it measure: 

Body Composition refers primarily to the distribution of muscle and fat in the body. 

Body size such as height, lengths and girths are also grouped under this component.

The test performed is Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated from body Weight (W) and height(H). 

BMI = W / (H x H), where W = body weight in kilograms and H = height in meters. The 

higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fat.

Measuring Height Accurately

  • Remove the participant’s shoes, bulky clothing, and hair ornaments, and unbraid hair that interferes with the measurement.
  • Take the height measurement on flooring that is not carpeted and against a flat surface such as a wall with no molding.
  • Have the participant stand with feet flat, together, and back against the wall. Make sure legs are straight, arms are at sides, and 
  • shoulders are level.
  • Make sure the participant is looking straight ahead and that the line of sight is parallel with the floor.
  • Take the measurement while the participant stands with head, shoulders, buttocks, and heels touching the flat surface (wall). (See 
  • illustration.) Depending on the overall body shape of the participant, all points may not touch the wall.
  • Use a flat headpiece to form a right angle with the wall and lower the headpiece until it firmly touches the crown of the head.
  • Make sure the measurer’s eyes are at the same level as the headpiece.
  • Lightly mark where the bottom of the headpiece meets the wall. 
  • Then, use a metal tape to measure from the base on the floor to the marked measurement on the wall to get the height measurement.
  • Accurately record the height to the nearest 0.1 centimeter.

Measuring Weight Accurately

  • Use a digital scale. 
  • Avoid using bathroom scales that are spring-loaded. 
  • Place the scale on firm flooring (such as tile or wood) rather than carpet.
  • Have the participant remove shoes and heavy clothing, such as sweaters.
  • Have the participant stand with both feet in the center of the scale. 
  • Record the weight to the nearest decimal fraction (for example, 25.1 kilograms).

Plate Tapping Test

What does it measure:

Tests speed and coordination of limb movement

How to Perform:

If possible, the table height should be adjusted so that the subject is standing comfortably in front of the discs. 

  • The two yellow discs are placed with their centers 60 cm apart on the table. The rectangle is placed equidistant between both discs.
  • The non-preferred hand is placed on the rectangle. 
  • The subject moves the preferred hand back and forth between the discs over the hand in the middle as quickly as possible.
  • This action is repeated for 25 full cycles (50 taps).

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Table (adjustable height), 2 yellow discs (20cm diameter), rectangle (30 x 20 cm), stopwatch

Scoring:

The time taken to complete 25 cycles is recorded

Test Administrative :

Participants should be encouraged to stand in a balanced posture, feet apart to shoulder width. Results are usually better if the participant can maintain constant pace during most of the run.

Flamingo Balance Test

What does it measure:

Ability to balance successfully on a single leg. This single leg balance test assesses the strength of the leg, pelvic, and trunk muscle as well as Static balance.

How to Perform:

Stand on the beam. Keep balance by holding the instructor’s hand (if required to start).

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Non Slippery even surface, Stopwatch, can be done by just standing on a beam.

While balancing on the preferred leg, the free leg is flexed at the knee and the foot of this leg held close to the buttocks.

Scoring:

  • The total number of falls or loss of balance in 60 seconds of balancing is recorded.
  • Start the watch as the instructor lets go of the participant/subject.
  • If there are more than 15 falls in the first 30 seconds, the test is terminated.
  • Pause the stopwatch each time the subject loses balance (either by falling off the beam or letting go of the foot being held).
  • Resume over, again timing until they lose balance. 
  • Count the number of falls in 60 seconds of balancing.

Administrative Suggestion:

Participants should be encouraged to eyes focused on stationary object straight ahead

Partial Curl Up (30sec)

What does it measure:

The curl up test measures abdominal muscular strength and endurance of the abdominals and hip- Flexors, important in back support and core stability.

How to Perform:

  • The subject lies on a cushioned, flat, clean surface with knees flexed, usually at 90 degrees, with hands straight on the sides (palms facing downwards) closer to the ground, parallel to the body.
  • The subject raises the trunk in a smooth motion, keeping the arms in position, curling up the desired amount (at least 6 inches above/along the ground towards the parallel strip).
  • The trunk is lowered back to the floor so that the shoulder blades or upper back touch the floor.

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Flat clean cushioned surface with two parallel 

strips (6 inches apart), Stopwatch, Recording 

sheets, Pen

Scoring:

Record the maximum number of Curl ups in a certain time period 30 seconds.

Administrative Suggestion:

Participants should be encouraged to keep a normal breathing rate. Results are usually better if the participants can maintain constant pace during the activity.

Push ups Boys and Modified push ups for girls

What does it measure:

Upper body strength, endurance, and trunk stability.

How to Perform:

  • A standard push up begins with the hands and toes touching the floor, the body and legs in a straight line, feet slightly apart, the arms at shoulder width apart, extended and at right angles to the body.
  • Keeping the back and knees straight, the subject lowers the body to a predetermined point, to touch some other object, or until there is a 90-degree angle at the elbows, then returns back to the starting position with the arms extended.
  • This action is repeated, and the test continues until exhaustion, or until they can do no more in rhythm or have reached the target number of push-ups.

For Girls: push-up technique is with the knees resting on the ground.

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Flat clean cushioned surface/Gym mat

Scoring:

Record the number of correctly completed push-ups.

Administrative Suggestion:

  • Participants should be encouraged to emphasize keeping the back straight. 
  • Results are usually better if the participant can maintain a constant pace during the activity.

Sit and reach test

What does it measure:

Common measure of flexibility, and specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. This test is important as because tightness in this area is implicated in lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain

How to Perform:

  • This test involves sitting on the floor with legs 
  • stretched out straight ahead. Shoes should be removed. The soles of the feet are placed flat against the Sit and Reach box. Both knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor – the tester may assist by holding them down.
  • With the palms facing downwards, and the hands on top of each other, the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible.
  • Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward than the other. 
  • After some practice, the subject reaches out and holds that position for one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. Make sure there are no jerky movements.

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Sit and Reach box with the following dimensions: 12″ x 12″ (sides) 12″ x 10″ (front and back) 12″ x 21″ (top) Inscribe the top panel with centimeter/mm gradations. 

It is crucial that the vertical plane against which the subject’s feet will be placed is exactly at the 23 cm mark. Flat clean cushioned surface/Gym Mats

Scoring:

The score is recorded (difference between initial position and final position), in cm and mm, as the distance reached by the hand.

Administrative Suggestion:

  • Proper warm-up and static stretching of the lower back and posterior thighs is very important for this test. A partner placing his/her hands lightly across knees can prevent the flexing of knees. 
  • Keep the hands over each other (fish pose). In order to prevent the test apparatus from sliding away from the participants during the test, it should be placed against a wall or a similar immovable object.
  • The test trial is repeated if:

(i) The hands reach out unevenly or 

(ii) The knees are flexed at the time of doing the test.

600 meter Run/Walk

What does it measure:

Cardiovascular Fitness/Cardiovascular Endurance

How to Perform:

  • Participants are instructed to run 600 mts. in the fastest possible pace.
  • The participants begin on signal, “ready, start” as they cross the finish line; elapsed time should be announced to the participants.
  • Walking is permitted but the objective is to cover the distance in the shortest possible time.

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Stopwatch, whistle, marker cone, lime powder, measuring tape, 200 or 400 mts with 1.22 mt (minimum 1 mt) width preferably on a flat and even playground with a marking of starting and finish line.

Scoring:

Time taken for completion (Run or Walk) in min, sec, mm

Administrative Suggestion:

  • Participants should be encouraged to practice running with emphasis placed on the concept of pace. 
  • Results are usually better if the participant can maintain constant pace during most of the run and perhaps using a strong closing effort.

50 meter Dash (standing start)

What does it measure:

Determines acceleration and speed

How to Perform:

  • A thorough warm up should be given, including some practice starts and accelerations.
  • Start from a stationary position, with one foot in front of the other. The front foot must be on or behind the starting line. This starting position should be static (dead start).
  • The tester should provide hints for maximizing speed (such as keeping low, driving hard with the arms and legs) and encouraged to continue running hard through the finish line.

Infrastructure/Equipment Required:

Measuring tape or marked track, stopwatch, cone markers, flat and clear surface of at least 60 meters.

Scoring:

Time taken for completion

Administrative Suggestion:

  • Participants should be encouraged to practice running with emphasis placed on the concept of pace.
  • Results are usually better if the participant can maintain constant pace during most of the run and perhaps using a strong closing effort.

Computing Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the total number of calories or minimum level of energy that our body needs to perform basic functions such as breathing, digestion, circulation, cell production, nutrient processing, protein synthesis, and ion transport, etc. That means all our bodily functions that happen beyond our control.

Calculate Your BMR

You can either fi d BMI by using a formula designed by scientists or you can get it tested in a lab. Also, you can use an online calculator. 

The Harris-Benedict Equation is often used to estimate basal metabolic rate.

Men: BMR = 88.362 + (13.397 x weight in kg) + (4.799 x height in cm) – (5.677 x age in years)

Women: BMR = 447.593 + (9.247 x weight in kg) + (3.098 x height in cm) – (4.330 x age in years)

Motor Fitness Test And Measurement

Motor fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to take part effectively in particular sports. It can also be said that the fitness is a person’s ability to do physical activity

Motor fitness is the ability to perform physical activities effectively and efficiently. There are 5 motor fitness components which measures’ fitness level of an athlete. 

test and measurement

These components are Strength, Endurance, Flexibility, Speed, Coordination/agility. Test to check these components are as follows

Test Items

  • 50 M Standing Start – For speed
  • 600 M Run/Walk – For Endurance
  • Sit & Reach – For flexibility
  • Partial Curl Up- For abdomen strength
  • Push Ups (Boys) – For arm strength
  • Modified Push Ups (Girls) – For arm Strength
  • Standing Broad Jump – For leg explosive strength
  • 4×10 M Shuttle Run – For agility

50 M Standing Start

50m race is administered to test the athlete’s speed. This test includes running 50 meters as fast as possible.

Procedure

Stand behind the starting line without touching the ground. One foot in front of the other.

Once the subject is ready, the starter gives the instructions “set” then “go. The athlete starts and crosses the end line as fast as possible.

600m run/walk

This test is to measure the endurance level.

Procedure

Stands behind the starting line. At the signal Ready and Go, The athlete starts running. In between, he can run or walk. Time is recorded.

Sit and Reach Test

This test is conducted to measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. 

Procedure

Sit on the floor without shoes, legs stretched, knee straight, palm facing downward. The subject tries to reach forward along the measure line as far as possible without giving any jerks

Partial Curl Up

The partial curl-up test is to test abdomen strength. The subjects perform as many sit-ups as possible at the rate of one every three seconds.

Procedure

Lie down on the back with the knees flexed. The subject curls up, until the shoulders come off the mat two inches, then go back again.

A total number of repetition of sit-ups is recorded in one minute.

Push Ups For Boys 

This push-up test is to measure upper body strength and endurance.

Procedure

From prone position push whole body up, hands and toes touch the floor, the body and legs in a straight line, feet slightly apart, keep the back and knees straight,

Lowers the body to a 90-degree angle at the elbows, then returns to position, continue till exhaustion, 

Modified Push Ups For Girls

The Modified Push-Up test is used to measure upper body strength, endurance and trunk stability

Procedure

Get down on your hands and knees with your hands just outside the shoulder. Now bend your elbows and lower your chest till 90° at the elbows.

Push your body up so that your arms are straight, the test will continues until exhaustion

Standing Broad Jump

The purpose of this test is to measure the explosive power of the legs.

Procedure

Stand behind a line marked on the ground with feet slightly apart. Now jump as far as possible, landing on both feet without falling backwards. 

4×10 M Shuttle Run

This test measures agility and speed

Procedure

Stand behind the starting line. On the signal, go, sprint to the opposite line, which is marked 10 m away. Pick up one block of wood (two wood block kept behind the line beforehand), run back to starting position, place the block on or beyond the line.

Take turn without a rest, run back to get the second block and carry it back across the finish line. A total of 40 metre is covered.


Measurement of Cardiovascular Fitness

Harvard Step Test

Harvard step test was developed by Lucien Brouha and his associates in 1943.
This test is to measure the cardiovascular or Aerobic fitness of an athlete, by checking the recovery rate.

Requirements:
⛳One gym bench of 20 inches high for men and 16 inches for women
⏰ Stopwatch

Test Administration
In this test, 
Athlete step-ups and step-down on the gym bench for five minutes or until exhaustion, at a rate of 30 steps per minute.
On the command ‘go’ an athlete starts doing steps, stopwatch is switched on simultaneously.
After completing athlete sits down immediately 

Pulse 1: The assistant measures the total number of heartbeat counted for 30 sec after 1 min of completion. 

Pulse 2: The assistant measures heartbeat again after 2 min for 30sec.

Pulse 3: The assistant measures pulse again after 3 minutes for 30 sec.

Calculation
100 x Test duration in seconds / 2x Sum of pulses

For male excellent score is above 90, and for women it is above 86

Rockport Walking Test

This test is to measure the Cardiorespiratory fitness of the athlete by measuring VO2 Max ( Maximum Cardiovascular Ability )

Requirements
💫 Running track ( 200 – 400m )
⌚ Stopwatch
♨ Weighing machine
🚶 Assistant


Test Administration
– Record body weight in pounds
– Walk or run one mile (1609m) as fast as possible
– Record the time to complete the one-mile walk
– Immediately on finishing the walk measure heart rate

Calculation
The formula to calculate VO2 max is:

132.853 – (0.0769 × Weight) – (0.3877 × Age) + (6.315 × Gender) – (3.2649 × Time) – (0.1565 × Heart rate)


( Weight is in pounds (lbs)
Gender: Male = 1 and Female = 0
Time is expressed in minutes
Heart rate is in beats/minute
Age is in years)


Rikli & Jones – Senior Citizen Fitness Test & Measurement

Senior citizen fitness test was developed by Roberta Rikli and Dr. Jessie Jones. This test consists of six easy and simple tests that assess the functional fitness of senior citizens.

Chair Stand Test

test and measurement

This test is to check leg strength and muscle endurance.

Requirements

Straight back chair without arms 45 cm high, stopwatch.

Test Administration

  • Place the chair against the wall
  • The person sits on the chair with feet apart
  • Arms crossed at the the wrist and held close to chest
  • From sitting position stand completely
  • Repeats for 30 seconds
  • The number of complete chair stand is scored.

Arm Curl Test

test and measurement

This test measures upper body strength and endurance. The aim is to do as many arm curls in 30 sec.

Requirements

  • 4 pound dumbbell for women and 8 pound for men
  • A chair without any armrest.
  • Stopwatch

Test Administration

  • The person sits on the chair holding the dumbbell, arms vertically downward
  • Curl forearm up through a full range of motion
  • The number of complete Curl actions is the score

Sit and Reach Test

test and measurement

The purpose of this test is to measure the lower body flexibility.

Requirements:

Ruler, Straight back chair 45 cm high

Test Administration

  • The person sits on the edge of the chair
  • One foot on the floor and other foot extended with knee straight.
  • Exhale and reach towards the toe
  • Keep the back straight and head up
  • Hold the reach for 2 sec
  • Perform the test twice and consider the best

Back Scratch Test

test and measurement

This test measures the general range of motion of the Shoulder. It requires a ruler

Test Administration

  • The test is done in a standing position
  • One hand is kept behind the head over the shoulder
  • Place the other hand behind the back. Fingers up
  • Try to touch both arms finger
  • Try the test twice and consider the best

8- Feet Up And Go Test

test and measurement

This test is designed to measure speed, agility and balance while moving

Requirements

  • Stopwatch
  • Straight back chair
  • Cone markers
  • Measuring tape

Test Administration

  • Place a chair against the wall
  • Keep a cone eight feet away in front of chair
  • The person sits on the chair and hands resting on knees
  • On the command GO person stand up and walk around the cone as quickly as possible and sit down on the chair
  • Scoring is counted based on time taken to perform

6 Minute Walk Test

test and measurement

This test is to measure Aerobic fitness.

Requirements

  • Measuring tape to mark track distance
  • Stopwatch
  • Chair for rest

Test Administration

  • The walking track is laid in rectangle area with cone marking
  • Person walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover maximum distance
  • Person can set their own pace and can stop to take rest
  • Measure in metres the distance covered by a person in six minutes

Frequently Asked Questions

Multiple Asked Questions

1. Which test is not a part of senior citizen fitness test

a. Chair stand test

b. Back scratch test

c. Zig Zag test

d. Arm Curl Test

2. Rockport one mile test is to measure the development of

a. VO2 max

b. Abdomen Strength

c. Agility

d. Flexibility

3. What is the duration of Harvard step test

a. 4 min

b. 8 min

c. 5 min

d. 2 min

4. Standing broad jump is to measure

a. Arm Strength

b. Leg Strength

c. Abdomen Strength

5. Harvard Step Test is to check

a. Strength

b. Endurance

c. Speed

d. Flexibility

Test and measurement in sports chapter 6 CBSE, class 12 Physical Education notes. This cbse Physical Education class 12 notes has a brief explanation of every topic that NCERT  syllabus has.

You will also get ncert solutions, cbse class 12 Physical Education sample paper, cbse Physical Education class 12 previous year paper.

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